Monday, December 14, 2009

Experience is that thing you get right after you need it.


It’s hard to imagine a time when there was not a strong component of plainclothes police officers addressing street crime in this city.

It’s not that far back, to the middle of 1970 that a concerted plainclothes effort against street crime did not exist. Looking through the June 1972 issue of Spring 3100, the development of the City Wide Anti-Crime Section was outlined.

In July 1970, to stem the tide of violent crimes against taxi and truck drivers, the Taxi, Truck Surveillance Unit was established as a temporary command within the Patrol Bureau.

This unit consisted of about 70 patrolman (remember, this was before the change to Police Officer title) and 70 detectives soon compiled an impressive record of not only arrests, but a dramatic reduction in crimes committed against taxi and truck drivers.

On November 12, 1970, the Police Commissioner authorized precinct commanders to utilize precinct personnel in civilian clothes to combat street crimes.

Prior to this time, plainclothes patrolmen performed public morals enforcement – gambling and vice – as part of the Division and Borough Plainclothes Units. Back then, when you heard that someone was “working in plainclothes”, it meant he was working in the enforcement of these public morals crimes. (Remember Frank Serpico?)

These Anti-Crime teams that the precinct established were soon so extremely productive in terms of raw arrest figures and the breaking of crime patterns, that the decision was made to expand the concept.

On October 16, 1971 the Chief of Patrol – Donald Cawley – combined the two concepts. The detectives that were assigned to the Taxi, Truck Surveillance Unit were returned to their commands, and the unit was re-designated the City Wide Anti-Crime Section (CWACS). It became a permanent part of the Patrol Services Bureau.

The new unit focused on all street crime, with emphasis on robberies, muggings and crimes against taxi and truck drivers. This is the unit that would evolve into the Street Crime Unit.

The section built on its nucleus of about 80 Taxi, Truck Surveillance members and gradually expanded to a field strength of 200 patrolmen, six policewomen, and a complement of superior officers and support staff.

Many of the patrolmen came from the Tactical Patrol Force and the Special Events Squad, but manpower came from almost every precinct in the city.

Housing such a command was a problem in itself. It started for the first year and a half working out of the small facility of the Queens Safety Division in Flushing Meadow Park. As the section expanded, they outgrew these quarters. The old Harbor building on Randall’s Island was then adopted, and soon became the headquarters for the CWACS.

On November 11, 1971, an Auto-Crime Unit was added to the CWACS. This component was created with an original staffing of 4 sergeants and 64 patrolmen. It became a permanent component of CWACS on February 14, 1972.

The CWACS was structured early on the team concept.

Each of the Section’s six squads consisted of one lieutenant, three or four sergeants, 30 or 40 men and one policewomen. Each squad, working as a team, performed three night tours and one day tour. Each sergeant was responsible for ten patrolmen. Assigning a policewomen to each squad insured that they would have at least one on patrol available for special assignment.

The policewomen proved themselves very valuable early on. They posed as shoppers, street-walkers, tourists, taxi drivers or passengers, or in any role which would make the section’s anti-street crime efforts more effective.

A photo placed in the Spring 3100 magazine of a CWACS roll call looked like an audition for The Village People and the “YMCA” video!


A standard practice for Detective’s dating back to at least the 1940’s and into the 1960’s was known as “The Lineup”.

Regularly scheduled detectives attended the Lineup at Police Headquarters (Centre Street), each day Monday - Thursday, starting at 9am.

The Lineup was conducted by the Chief of Detectives, for the purpose of allowing detectives to personally observe the characteristics and appearance of recently apprehended prisoners.

The main purpose, as outlined in a SPRING3100 profile of 1954, was to “acquaint detectives with the many types of prisoners arrested by the department and to help them to close pending cases if a prisoner should be wanted for another crime”.

In 1954 the department was beginning to experiment with televising the Lineup to detective Squads, in an effort to eliminate the travel time lost to detective’s from outlying commands.

Remember, this was before Polaroid photographs, fax machines, or any of the other “modern” means of disseminating information on those arrested that we enjoy now.


Bobby Nardi has checked in from the Bronx, with a few suggestions for the humidor.

He notes that he has been smoking the Rocky Patel Edge cigar lately, and enjoys the smoke.

He also notes that the Rocky Patel Decade is a very nice smoke. I have found both of these cigars to be very enjoyable as well, and highly recommend them.

I met Rocky Patel (yes, he is a real person, unlike Ben and Jerry) at a Cigar Inn event a few years ago. A true gentleman who produces quality cigars.

You can’t go wrong with a Rocky Patel cigar as an addition to your humidor.

Bobby also mentioned how he was having trouble keeping his humidor at the 70% level. He notes that the addition of a florist’s green brick foam has helped. I have begun using a Xicar gel that comes in a bottle for the purpose of keeping the humidor at the right level, and have found that it not only works very well, but it also lasts for several months.


A review of a recent statistic published by Scotland Yard as it relates to street crime in the London area notes the following:

“Fifty per cent of robberies involve the theft of a mobile phone, as do around 15 to 20 per cent of burglaries”

Mobile telephone thievery is worldwide!


The link below leads to the press release of the Ohio State Buckeyes Womens Lacrosse Team, announcing their Captains for the 2009-2010 season:


December 20, 1859 Ptl John Steward, NFI
December 20, 1925 Ptl Stephen McPhillips, 23 Pct, Electrocuted
December 20, 1936 Ptl James Smith, Traffic C, Auto accident
December 20, 1967 Ptl Robert Harris, HAPD, Shot-gun arrest
December 20, 1971 Ptl Carson Terry, HAPD-SI, Shot, off duty arrest
December 20, 1976 PO Carlos King, TPD D2, Shot-off duty robbery
December 21, 1930 Ptl Howard Barrows, 105 Pct, Auto accident
December 21, 1967 Ptl George Bishop, Aviation, Helicopter accident
December 21, 1967 Ptl Plato Arvantis, Aviation, Helicopter accident
December 22, 1927 Lt Charles Kemmer, 54 Pct, Shot-burglary arrest
December 22, 1940 Ptl Joseph Kussius, GCP Pct, Motorcycle accident
December 22, 1977 PO William Flood, PBQ, Shot-Robbery, off duty
December 22, 1996 PO Charles Davis, MWS, Shot-Off duty robbery
December 23, 1929 Ptl Michael Speer, 71 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 23, 1930 Ptl James McMahon, Traffic F, Injured on patrol
December 23, 1939 Ptl John Briggs, 23 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 24, 1935 Ptl James Dowling, 25 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 24, 1980 PO Gabriel Vitale, 109 Pct, Shot-investigation
December 25, 1935 Ptl Joseph Reiner, Traffic H, Auto accident on patrol
December 27, 1944 Det Anthony McGinley, 5 DetDist, Shot-Domestic dispute
December 28, 1929 Ptl Joseph Jockel, McyDist, Shot-arrest
December 28, 1974 PO Kenneth Mahon, 41 Pct, Shot-robbery
December 28, 1978 PO David Guttenberg, 68 Pct, Shot-robbery
December 28, 1991 Sgt Keith Levine, CommDiv, Shot-robbery, off duty
December 29, 1878 Ptl Asa Furness, 10 Pct, Shot by EDP


The Minister of Investigation wishes all a happy holiday season – Happy Hanukah, Merry Christmas, and a very Happy New Year. Hope you are working your way through your Christmas shopping list!

Remember- To Contact The Minister Of Investigation:

Send me an email at:

Of Further Note- In the past 2 weeks, by 2 different people, I have heard the Minister of Investigation being referred to as “The Guru of Death” – can this catch on??

A fellow squad commander thought it would make a catchy title for a book! Thanks, Marc!

Tuesday, December 08, 2009

DET SH# 5562


A tribute in the 40 Precinct locker room has been set up by the men and women who worked with him. The door of the locker that he once used memorializes this heroic officer.

“On Sunday, December 10, 2005, Police Officer Daniel Enchautegui, having completed his tour of duty at the 40th Precinct, returned home and confronted two men who were burglarizing a neighbor’s apartment.

“Without warning one of the men opened fire on Officer Enchautegui, striking him in the chest.

“despite being mortally wounded by this cowardly act, Officer Enchautegui returned fire, emptying his pistol at his assailants and striking them with every round he fired before finally succumbing to his wounds.

“Danny’s courage, dedication to duty and fighting spirit epitomize the character of the men and women of the NYPD.

“We will never forget our brother.”

Officer Enchautegui, who had been off duty for little more than five hours after working a 4 p.m.-to-midnight shift, got up and called his landlord, Henry Dziedzic, upstairs and asked if he had heard glass breaking. The landlord said that he had not.

The officer put on a black winter coat, slung his police shield around his neck, took his cellphone and off-duty pistol, an eight-shot KHR semiautomatic, and went out to investigate.

On the side of the house next door, at 3119 Arnow, he saw that a basement window had been broken. Officer Enchautegui immediately called 911 for backup officers.

Following procedure, the police said, he calmly identified himself as an officer and said he was investigating a possible burglary next door. He also noted that he was armed and was wearing his shield on a necklace, and he described his black coat so that he would not be mistaken for a burglar and possibly shot by fellow officers.

As Officer Enchautegui waited on the tree-lined street of red-brick homes, two men, one of them armed, emerged from the house he had under surveillance. "Police! Don't move! Police! Don't move!" Officer Enchautegui shouted, loud enough for his landlord to hear.

Investigators - who said they had pieced together an account of what happened from evidence at the scene and from neighbors' descriptions of the sequence of gunfire - said that the armed suspect, identified as Mr. Armento, a parolee with three convictions for burglary and possession of stolen property, had fired first, with a .357 Smith & Wesson revolver.

The bullet struck Officer Enchautegui in the left chest, but he responded with at least six shots, investigators said, striking Mr. Brancato twice in the chest and Mr. Armento four times in the abdomen, chest, right leg and groin, before collapsing. As the officer went down in his driveway, the wounded assailants hobbled west toward Westchester Avenue, a half block away, where two officers had just pulled up in a patrol car, responding to Officer Enchautegui's 911 call.

They first spotted Mr. Brancato beside a silver, late-model Dodge Durango, parked on Westchester Avenue. He was bleeding onto the door handle and into the street. They searched him, found no weapon, and arrested him.

The officers then turned into Arnow Place and saw Mr. Armento running at them with a gun in his hand, according to the police. He, too, was bleeding. The officers took cover, one behind a parked car and the other behind the corner of a building, and shouted at the approaching gunman: "Stop! Police! Drop the gun!" At that, the man dropped his weapon and collapsed in the street, about 50 feet from the officers.

Back at the shooting scene, another officer and a sergeant found Officer Enchautegui, lying face up and bleeding in his driveway. He was breathing shallowly, apparently near death, and appeared to be unconscious. Emergency service officers administered cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, and he was taken by ambulance to Jacobi Medical Center, where further efforts to revive him failed. He was pronounced dead at 6:09 a.m.

Officer Enchautegui joined the force in July 2002 and was first assigned to the 52nd Precinct in the Bronx. After a short time on what officers call an "impact post" - a beat where heavy criminal activity requires extra patrols – he was transferred to the 40th Precinct, which covers the Mott Haven section of the South Bronx. He was unmarried and is survived by his parents and a sister.

(Ed. Note: I would once again like to acknowledge the fine work done at the web site, and have reproduced in part the memorial information posted for PO Enchautegui on that site.)


Detective Miccio was shot and killed during an investigation while assigned to the 78th Detective Squad.

Monday, December 07, 2009

“Kid, the police lab is fine and our fingerprint identification procedures are the best in the world. There’s no police department that has the wonderful, scientific aids to crime detection that we have. But the most important pinches I’ve made came because some stool I knew told me, “You’ll find the hood who did the West Side Killing in Room 314 at the Bedford Hotel”.

1955- Insp. Francis J. Phillips, NYPD, C.O. Detective Bureau


Not many people would be able to recognize the importance of this person, Lester Shubin, and the impact he has had over police lives worldwide.

Lester Shubin was a Justice Department researcher when he turned a DuPont fabric intended for tires into the first truly effective bulletproof vests, which has saved the lives of more than 3,000 law enforcement officers.

Lester Shubin recently died after a heart attack; he was 84 years old.

He worked for the National Institute of Justice in the 1970’s when DuPont came out with a fabric that was to replace steel-belting on high-speed tires.

This new substance was called Kevlar.

It was said to be “stronger than steel, lighter than nylon.”

Kevlar worked by deforming the bullet, spreading its energy as it hit the body-armor.

Obtaining a grant from the Justice Department to perfect their research, Shubin worked to make the vest not only strong but lighter, and more flexible. The vest was put over a gelatin mold to determine how human body might react to the impact of a handgun bullet.

They then soon learned that even more difficult than developing the material was getting manufacturers lined up to produce the product. A fear of getting sued if the product failed was a major obstacle to overcome.

By 1975 the vest had been produced, but still not in large scale use. They tried giving the vests away, but many police departments wouldn’t take them, and those that did had trouble persuading cops to wear them.

But in 1975 a Seattle police officer wearing a Kevlar vest walked in on an armed robbery in a convenience store and was shot at point-blank range. He survived to complain about doctors who kept him in the hospital over Christmas Eve because they found it hard to believe that he had only bruises.

Shubin also was among the first people to suggest that law enforcement use dogs to find explosives. Skepticism about bomb-sniffing dogs evaporated after the 1972 Democratic National Convention in Miami. A dog pawed at a wall and found a spent cartridge from a rivet gun. About the same time, another dog found a bomb on an American Airlines flight in New York, and a third, assigned to a federal drug agency, found $100 million in heroin.

Such a far reaching legacy from a man of virtually unknown recognition.

(Thanks to an obituary printed in the Washington Post)


A sign posted on many a detective squad room in the past contained these simple letters: GOYAKOD.

This was meant as a subtle reminder to the detectives of the importance of a very basic detective investigative tactic.

Frank Bolz passed this along to me years ago, answering a question I had of a memory I observed in the early years of my opportunities to visit squad rooms.

GOYAKOD was a reminder to the detective of the importance for almost any important investigation:

G et

O ff

Y our

A ss and

K nock

O n

D oors

In other words – get out of the office, talk to people. Do the canvass, ask questions and seek out information from your sources of information. Don’t wait for the phone to ring, because it probably won’t. Detectives need people to tell them what happened. Go out and ask them!!!


The stranglehold that organized crime has within Italy has been the subject of many stories, movies and other tales.

Italy’s current prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi, is intent on going down in history as being the leader who defeated the Mafia. Much success has been reached in this regard, though at the cost of a number of high profile incidents that saw the loss of law enforcement lives.

One of the measures put into place going back to 1982 was legislation similar to what we have here in the US – laws that established a Mafia conspiracy, as in our RICO statutes.

Under those laws, property seized in these Mafia crackdowns could be turned over to the state in sweeping confiscations of Mafia-related assets. Turned over to the state, the government could take control and utilize assets for any social services they saw fit.

This may change soon, as measures have been introduced in Italy’s parliament that could find these very same seized assets turned back over to the criminal enterprises they were seized from.

New legislation being introduced would have the seized assets put up for auction to the highest bidder.

Under that process, the cash-strapped government could cash in for funds that they could better utilize socially.

A huge step backwards, though, says an anti-Mafia group that is afraid that this would allow fronts for Mafia businesses to buy back their assets on the cheap. Under the right influence, or “offer they couldn’t refuse”, the Mafia front could find themselves not only the highest bidder – but perhaps the only bidder.

Not exactly what the original intention was.

It should be interesting to see how this develops over the next few months.


A recent article in CSO Magazine (Chief Security Officer) outlined the 7 basic blunders of building security that should be of interest to the private sector-minded security executive.

1. Creating orders for guard service without advanced analysis
Having a security service contractor develop guard posts without the proper analysis or input from the building staff.

2. Placing aesthetics over security.
Just because it looks nice doesn’t mean its effective.

3.Neglecting to secure certain entrances
In an attempt to save money, or simply overlooking the importance of securing every opportunity for entrance.

4. Allowing management to ignore security rules
Allowing management to bypass security checkpoints, or escort in visitors without being properly screened, is a recipe for disaster.

5. Failing to understand your technology
Having the proper equipment but not using it properly wastes money and creates potential security risks.

6. Failing to secure important rooms within the building
Overlooking access control of key locations within the structure, such as computer storage and the mail room.

7. Overdoing security
Overdoing it where it doesn’t make sense could cause future lapses, as measures are eased up improperly. Overdo it where it doesn’t make sense, and in six months people will have figured out ways to get around the security.



An addition to my true-crime library was a book titled “A COP’S TALE” by Jim O’Neil, a retired Detective Sergeant. “A Detective’s Firsthand Account of Murder & Mayhem”, it is subtitled “NYPD: The Violent Years”.

The book chronicles the author’s exploits as an NYPD Patrolman, Detective and Detective Sergeant through the 1960’s into the 1970’s. Coming on the job in 1963, he spent 23 years on the job, much of it in Brooklyn North.

A good part of the book tells stories from his time as a Detective in the 73 Squad. His tales of 1960’s Brownsville would surely engage any Brooklyn North detective today!

While tactics and procedures have certainly adapted to the times, it is always interesting to hear these “tales from the past”. It’s like sitting at a table with five retirees, with over 200 years of NYPD experience, and listen to them tell stories. While you are thrilled with the stories, you can’t help but wonder and be aghast at some of the ways things were done.

What was standard and expected would have no place in today’s department, for sure. But it is always good to hear about the past, to know where you came from to understand where you are know, and where you are going.

Before technology and computerized databases, detectives relied on their informants. That’s why a good number of the stories originate, or end, in a local Brownsville gin mill.

Places like Red Jack’s Bar, the Highway Inn, Teddy’s Happy House, Pacey’s, and The Date Room all had a prominent place in the detective’s stories. Connecting with informants, learning who was doing what to whom, it all had a place in these detective’s lives.

In the days before paid overtime, detectives worked a case until it was solved, putting in many hours on their “own time”. Can you imagine such a thing today?

His entry into the detective squad in the old 73 Station House introduced him to Fort Zinderneuf. Fort Z.

Many Brooklyn North MOS have heard the 73 referred to as “Fort Z”. Do you know where this term came from?

Fort Zinderneuf was the last outpost of the French Foreign Legion in the classic film “Beau Geste”. That’s where the “Fort Z” part of the 73’s history comes from.

“The first week one of the most important things I learned was when to wear my detective’s hat, a classic felt fedora”. Wearing the fedora, it seems, helped keep critters with many legs from falling down the back of your coat!

Not without its dated topics, he addressed issues such as work in the plainclothes divisions. (Editor’s Note” While some may say its self-censoring, I do not particularly enjoy retelling on these pages stories of corruption and/or carousing. We get enough bad press as it is).

Some interesting characters take up many of these stories, and anyone who has ever investigated a crime or ridden in a radio car in the 73 area would most surely enjoy these. He mentions the time when the Police Commissioner, Patrick Murphy, broke up the precinct detective squads into specialized units. He went to the 13th Division Robbery Squad, working out of the 79 Precinct, with Lieutenant Frank Bolz the Commanding Officer.

Many will recognize Frank as the original Hostage Negotiations commander, a friend of this writer and a contributor of many stories to this site.

The author moves to Manhattan North after his promotion to Sergeant and a brief time in IAB (before he was asked to leave, before the IAB bosses asked him to leave). He was the Sergeant in the Senior Citizens Robbery Unit in Manhattan North after having led a Task Force that addressed violence in an area of the 32 Precinct. The Homicide Task Force brought crime down in the 32 and helped spur the advance in rank of Charles Henry to Deputy Chief, becoming the first black Deputy Chief in the department.

“The 73rd was a veritable sweatshop where each detective caught over six hundred cases a year”.

Cases were prioritized in a rather unusual format for today’s detectives. There were “three piles”. “Pile number 1: homicides, shootings, stabbings, stick-ups, and the occasional rape-investigate immediately. Pile number two: street muggings, commercial burglaries- investigate later. Pile number three: residential burglaries, purse snatches, larcenies and other low-level crimes- investigate never”.

At the time he indicates that the 73 was the third highest in crime outranked only by the 41 in the Bronx (Fort Apache) and the 28 in Harlem.

The book is featured in a recent issue of the SBA’s bulletin “Frontline”, and is available at bookstores in the area. A quick, easy read, it’s made it to my “True-Crime” bookcase at work.


Soon to hit the shelves at Barnes & Noble and be available through major book sources, a crime novel written by a NYC Sanitationman sees a writers passion reaching new heights.

Anthony Cardieri is a District Superintendent for the New York City Department of Sanitation. His passion for writing has seen several novels penned, and has even self published one of them. He’s reaching a major milestone, though, with the first one which will soon be available by major publishing sources.

LUCK OF THE DRAW is based in New York City – of course. The son of a retired NYPD detective, Cardieri made sure he got the police procedurals correct.

Stepping off with a book signing on December 11 at Barnes & Noble in Staten Island, you should watch for the debut of this book in the next week.


On December 16, 1920 Lieutenant Floyd Horton, assigned to the Old 40 Precinct in Harlem, was shot and killed in an attempt to apprehend a robbery perp.

Lt Horton was off duty and walking to the subway to go home to Brooklyn when he heard a man yelling “Police! Stop thief” and heard a shot. Lt Horton ran to where heard the commotion and was told that two men had just held up an elevator operator and shot a witness. Lt Horton gave chase on 146th Street towards Broadway. The man jumped into a waiting automobile and Lt Horton jumped onto the running board of the suspects vehicle. One of the suspects in the car fired a shot striking Horton in the right lung. Although fatally wounded, Lt Horton was able to draw his service revolver and fire through the glass, exchanging shots with one of the culprits. One of the Horton’s bullets struck the shooter in the heart, killing him instantly, and another struck the other occupant in the arm. The driver of the vehicle pushed Lt Horton off the running board onto the street, as the Lieutenant fired the remaining bullets at the auto. Aided by two passersby, the license plate number was written down on a piece of paper by the Lieutenant before he was removed to the hospital. He died a few hours later.

The driver of the vehicle, the brother of the suspect who was shot and killed by Horton, was convicted of murder, and sentenced to 25 years to life.

The body of Lieutenant Horton was taken to the Long Island train station with a uniformed escort headed by the Police Band, to be laid to rest in upstate Dutchess County, where he was born.

(The above is reproduced from a recent LBA Newsletter. LBA President Tom Sullivan and Retired Lt Bill Laarney have been working on compiling stories of Lieutenant's who have lost their lives in the line of duty - a very fitting memorial to those who have gone before us.)


December 2, 1873 Ptl Edward Burns, 8Pct, Arrest – assaulted
December 2, 1994 PO Raymond Cannon, 69 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
December 3, 1922 Ptl John Kennedy, 123 Pct, LOD injury
December 3, 1934 Ptl John Monahan, 14 Div, Shot-arrest
December 3, 1954 Ptl Joseph Norden, 105 Pct, Shot by EDP
December 3, 1973 PO Vincent Connolly, Bomb Sqd, Auto accident on duty
December 4, 1923 Ptl Alfred Van Clieff, 63 Pct, Motorcycle accident
December 6, 1903 Ptl Frank Redican, 1 Pct, Fire rescue
December 6, 1941 Ptl Thomas Casey, 17 Pct, Shot-Robbery pursuit
December 7, 1937 Ptl Edward Lynch, 20 Pct, Shot-Burglary in progress
December 7, 1971 Det Harold Marshall, HAPD-Bklyn, Shot-off duty arrest
December 8, 1924 Ptl Joseph Pelosi, 60 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 8, 1932 Ptl Michael Moroso, 23 Pct, Shot by sniper
December 8, 1942 Det Joseph Miccio, 78 Sqd, Shot-investigation
December 8, 1946 Ptl Edward McAuliff, 18 Sqd, LOD injury
December 9, 1932 Ptl John Grattan, Mcy Unit, Motorcycle accident on patrol
December 10, 1929 Ptl Philip Morrissey, 85 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 10, 2005 PO Daniel Echautegui, 40Pct, Off duty arrest for burglary
December 11, 1922 Ptl Francis Mace, 73 Pct, Line of duty injury
December 12, 1966 Ptl Raul Yglesias, PA, Shot-off duty altercation
December 13, 1932 Ptl Louis Wiendieck, Traffic B, Line of duty pursuit
December 13, 1946 Det James Burke, 48 Sqd, Shot-robbery
December 14, 1932 Ptl George Gerhard, 20 Pct, Shot-Robbery pursuit
December 14, 1961 Ptl Hugh Willoughby, 26 Pct, Shot-robbery, off duty
December 16, 1920 Lt Floyd Horton, 40 Pct, Shot: GLA arrest
December 16, 1981 PO Anthony Abruzzo, Jr, 109 Pct, Shot-Robbery, off duty