Friday, September 23, 2005


I mentioned in a recent posting, concerning our brothers and sisters in the Metropolitan Police in London, how case documentation takes place to record the decision making of London�s counterpart to our �squad commander�, the Senior Investigating Officer, who may be a Detective Chief Inspector or such similar rank.

In any event, the idea of the �Decision Log�, is to record what decisions are being made at the time, and what information these decisions are being based on.

Not a small task at all.

With the assistance of Detective Chief Inspector Matthew Horne, of the Metropolitan Police, I present some information to our investigators and squad commanders on �this side of the pond�.

The Decision Log, also known as a �Policy File�, is intended to accurately reflect the strategic and important tactical decisions made by supervising detectives as they relate to the investigation. All strategic and important tactical decisions should be recorded with the rationale behind the decisions.

The investigative plan is referred to in British police terms as the investigative strategy.

�There is no absolutes as to what should be included and that is very much left to the individual senior investigating officer (SIO)� notes DCI Horne. �But you would include any theories and hypotheses as to what and how things happened, suspect strategies i.e. who is regarded as a suspect and why as well as who may not be. We are big in recording what we do. Yes, it is often quite onerous and the last thing you want to do it write everything down when you should be catching the guy. We have a saying here and it goes 'if it isn't written anywhere, it didn't happen.'� Sound familiar?

In the past, policy files were subjected to scrutiny by criminal courts, civil courts, inquests and reviews. Scrutiny now may also include judicial reviews and public inquiries. If Decision Logs are skillfully prepared, they can serve as a critical record supporting the accurate management of crime investigation.

SIOs must be mindful that this log is the definitive record upon which they will rely when subsequently asked to account for their decisions.

�Where these decision logs have really assisted is where things haven't gone as well as we had hoped they would and two years down the line we are in court having to justify something that at the time didn't seem so controversial. Recording a decision and documenting the reasons shows why it was done (or wasn't done)and why it was reasonable in the circumstances helps down the line. We now included other things that might be happening at the time such as another big case whereby resources and manpower were taken away and therefore some of the obvious things were done late, or even pressures being placed on the SIO by the community such as a need to make quick arrests to prevent disorder or revenge type attacks�, explains DCI Horne.

Probably the most important aspect of managing any major investigation is the systematic recording of the SIO's decisions. The recording of why various lines of enquiry and tactical decisions were, or were not, pursued is critical.

DCI Matt Horne explains further that, while this is a rather tedious procedure, it seems to work in the British legal system � which he is quick to advise differs from our legal system in many respects.

The other difference that is quickly observed? When our British counterparts relax after a long days work, they often do so over a � warm � beer!


Thanks to Retired Det.Capt. FRANK BOLZ for the following contribution on sh*t.

Now, they can't say you don't know S_ _ _.

Subject: Manure

In the 16th and 17th centuries, everything had to be transported by ship, and this was also before the invention of commercial fertilizer. Large shipments of manure were common.

It was shipped dry, because in dry form it weighed a lot less than when wet, but once water (at sea) hit it, it not only became heavier, but the process of fermentation began again, of which a by product is methane gas. As the stuff was stored below decks in bundles you can see what could (and did) happen. Methane began to build up below decks and the first time, someone came below at night with a lantern, BOOOOM! Several ships were destroyed in this manner before it was determined just what was happening.

After that, the bundles of manure were always stamped with the term "Ship High In Transit" on them, which meant for the sailors to stow it high enough off the lower decks so that any water that came into the hold would not touch this volatile cargo and start the production of methane.

Thus evolved the term "S.H.I.T " , (Ship High In Transit) which has come down through the centuries and is in use to this very day.

You probably did not know the true history of this word. Neither did I. I always thought it was a golf term, or the last word on the cockpit tape just before the aircraft crashes.


NATHAN HALE: 44 Street and Vanderbilt Avenue

Nathan Hale, hanged for spying on the British during the Revolutionary War, is most famous for his last words, uttered just before the Brits slipped a noose around his neck: � I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.�

Great quote; it got him a statue outside City Hall, only trouble is that it seems he never said it.

British troops caught the blond, blue-eyed soldier snooping around Brooklyn around the time of September 21, 1776. They charged that he was spying on British military installations. Nathan, with pen and paper in hand, claimed he was a schoolteacher doing research. The Brits smiled, put a bayonet in his face and took him captive. The following day British commanders, prided on being civilized, executed Hale possibly at a site where the United Nations now stands.

Besides the statue at City Hall, there is also a fresco, located at Hale House on East 51 Street, that depicts his trial (a very short one) and death, as well as a plaque at the yale Club at 44 Street and Vanderbilt Avenue. Hale attended Yale.


Several different versions of a story exist regarding just who that man is on the police target. Here�s another one.

This one is from a Retired Captain, Thomas J. O�Connell, who wrote a letter to the Wilmington, NC Morning Star newspaper. He apparently saw a story that paper ran, which was from a NY Times newswire story, on this subject.

�Several editions ago you published an article on the front page regarding the identity of the individual on the New York City Police Department pistol rangetarget. Let me clear something up. There was a first-class detective named Jim McShane who was a real classy guy. An ex-fighter, he knew his way around New York City. He knew all the right peopleand all the wrong people. He was a friend of Rocky Marciano, the now deceased heavy weight champ.

One day Mr. McShane's photo was on the front page of the New York Daily News, holding anumbrella over Rocky's head after he had been at a weigh in or whatever. Unfortunately, for Jim McShane, the police commissioner Steve Kennedy, who was a real stiff and alleged disciplinarian, thought Mr. McShane's action inappropriate, and Jim went from a first grade detective to a patrolman in uniform.

Later Bobby Kennedy, as the attorney general, made Mr. McShane the boss of the United States Marshal Service.Mr. Kennedy sent him down South to supervise the integration of the school system during the turbulent 1960s. It was there that Jim McShane gained his most notoriety.

So, that's who is on that target, none of the other guys mentioned in the article. I was on the job then, and that was everybody's opinion. ...�


Remember, your work product � and your reports � are a direct reflection of who you are.

Sloppy written reports reflect poorly on your investigation; a jury will be led to believe that a sloppy report reflects a sloppy investigation. Just think embarrassment on the witness stand.

Spelling errors in a report reflect poorly on your investigation. Some detectives have turned to the word processor to help in this aspect, but keep this in mind � spell check is different from intent-check.

Spell check can fix, or even highlight, misspellings, but cannot identify what you meant to say. It does not know the difference between the word �to, two and too� and which word should have been used in the context of the sentence. If you misspell a word but your misspelling is actually another word, it is not going to be corrected and if left in the report that way, looks sloppy and unprofessional. It also shows that you do not proofread your work.

If you have pre-set wording for common tasks, such as for an interview of the complainant, or photo viewing, you need to make sure that the wording is proper; otherwise you�ll be duplicating the error every time you utilize it.

If you prepared a pre-set wording text and left items out to be filled in, make sure you fill them in.

A common example would be a sentence wording where you �fill in the blank� appropriately, i.e. �On the above date I xxx the complainant for an interview�, wherein you would appropriately enter �called�, or �visited� in place of the xxx.

If you fail to do this, your report will most certainly be brought up for review � and potential embarrassment - at trial. Proofread your pre-set wording!

Remember � a detective writes reports � be sure your reports properly reflect your work.


Illustrated Guide To Crime Scene Investigation
By Nicholas Petraco, Hal Sherman
Hardcover / 470 Pages / July 2005 / List Price $79.95

One of the true crime scene experts, Retired Det. Hal Sherman, has co-authored a textbook on Crime Scene Investigations.

Many of you will recall working a case that Hal responded to from CSU, or you may have sat in on one of his fantastic crime scene lectures. Truly an expert, Hal is one of the losses this department has seen in the past few years.

The book is described as a crime scene investigation book that provides instruction and review in a pictorial format useful to both professional crime scene investigators and those in law enforcement who may be required to process a scene in the absence of certified technicians.

Using hundreds of photographs and a minimum of text, the guide takes the reader through one continuous case study. Each module illustrates with photographs, diagrams, and short lists of instructions, detailing each step of the crime scene processing function.

Illustrated Guide to Crime Scene Investigation covers all steps necessary to recognize, document, process, collect, package, preserve, and safeguard potential evidence.

I believe you can find the text at Barnes & Noble, or through their web site,, for approximately $58.00


September 25, 1895 Ptl John Delehanty, 21 Pct, assaulted
September 25, 1953 Ptl Harry Widder, GCP-Hwy3, Auto accident
September 25, 1971 PO Arthur Pelo, HA-BkSI, Shot-robbery arrest
September 25, 1995 PO David Willis, 10 Pct, Auto accident, radio run
September 26, 1977 PO Vito Chiaramonte, HA-CCU, Shot
September 27, 1945 Det Frank McGrath, 2 Sqd, Shot-investigation
September 27, 1992 PO William Gunn, 67 PDU, Shot-investigation
September 28, 1921 Ptl Joseph Reuschle, 42 Pct, Shot by prisoner
September 28, 1934 Ptl John Fraser, 4 Div, Shot-robbery in progress
September 29, 1854 Ptl James Cahill, 11 Ward, Shot-Burglary **
September 29, 1965 Ptl Donald Rainey, Auto Crime, Shot-Mistaken ID, off duty
September 29, 1983 PO Joseph McCormack, ESU, Shot-barricade situation

Saturday, September 17, 2005


Ever notice the bronze statue of the police officer, holding the flag with a young boy standing next to him, in the lobby of 1PP?

Ever wonder where that came from?

I remember first seeing the statue at the entrance of the Police Recreation Centre, which was located in Platte Cove � outside of Tannersville � in upstate New York. A popular summer retreat for members� and their families, providing many fond memories to those who ever attended, the statue was on the right side of the road as you turned into the Police Camp (as everyone called it).

The statue is a memorial to all policemen killed in the line of duty. The late Martin J. Gillen, a retired detective, was chosen in 1939 to model for the statue with the eight year old son of the late Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia.

The bronze group, showing Mr. Gillen in uniform, holding a furled flag with his hand on the boy�s shoulder, was executed by the late Attilio Piccirilli.

After it was completed, it was kept in storage for fifteen years awaiting the decision on where it was to be placed. The statue, turning green and gathering dust, was eventually placed at the grounds of the Police Recreation Centre.

It stood there until the Centre was closed up, in the early 70�s.

Detective Gillen was the Second Vice President of the Honor Legion before he retired, and died at 77 years of age.

While on the topic, another bronze bust was also famed at the Police Centre.

Sculptured in 1925, a huge bronze bust honoring former Police Commissioner Enright was placed in the main hotel of the Police Centre, after it was moved there from the Centre�s Lodge building. Apparently, while in the Lodge, it was not under constant attention � and very popular to be marked up by children in all sorts of way; it was common to see a pair of sunglasses or a hat propped on the statue by a passing guest.


A Retired Brooklyn North Detective passed on the following quip regarding an old homicide investigation.

It seems that back in the '60s, a woman was murdered in her apartment during a burglary in the 87 Pct.

The case was going nowhere, even though Det. Dorney of Bklyn North Homicide Sqd documented several attempts to elicit a statement from the woman's pet parrot.

You never know what may work!


Long Island University�s Homeland Security Management Institute has announced a 15-credit graduate level certificate program in Homeland Security Management, which can be taken on-line.

The Homeland Security Management Institute, in addition to offering a 15-credit graduate-level online Advanced Certificate in Homeland Security Management, also offers a full Masters in Homeland Security expected to begin in January 2006.

The program is entirely online, and all faculty are practitioners with PhDs or JD degrees � and include some names that are well known to this department.

You can check the LIU website for a lot more information �

You will also be pleased to know that they are offering a 1/3 tuition discount to all MOS.


As I mentioned in a previous posting, I enjoyed Stacy Horn�s new boo, THE RESTLESS SLEEP, and it�s portrait of the Cold Case Squad. I noted the rather negative review this book received in a recent Time Out New York magazine, but in fairness � and because I liked the book � I�d like to post some of the positive reviews.

NEWSDAY reviewed on July 31 that �The Restless Sleep has enough forensic science to satisfy "CSI" fans and a series of intricate whodunits sure to hook people spending their summer vacation watching reruns of "Law & Order." Also, �Horn has turned nobodies into somebodies�.

The BALTIMORE SUN notes �There is rarely a dull page as Horn portrays her colorful band as they challenge the perplexing past."

And the KIRKUS REVIEWS wrote that �Horn captures with crackling intensity the work of cops who investigate long-unsolved homicides."

All this despite the absence of Dennis Bootle to any of these stories. Maybe Dennis can play a part in the author�s next text on ghosts? Maybe you were omitted from the stories, Dennis, but at least it didn�t note your only contribution to the investigation being the creation of an overtime tracking form.


Here are some tips on using a camera on surveillance, provided by the California Association of Licensed Investigators.

If you have cause to use a camera, you might want to keep these tips in mind as ways to prevent your camera lens from fogging:

*Keep the camera wrapped in a towel to absorb moisture.
*Be careful of changing temperatures too rapidly; inside vs. outside temperature changes can fog the lens quickly, at a time you may need it the most.
*Keep the camera on charger when it�s in the car. The charger will heat the battery and help eliminate moisture.


On a recent ride up the Harlem River Drive, I noted how close Yankee Stadium stood to the former Polo Grounds, home of the New York Giants (baseball!) team. Two major league stadiums so close to each other � you wonder if you couldn�t hear the roar of the crowd from one stadium to the other?

That was at a time when people attended ball games in a suit and tie (we now have trouble getting detectives to wear a suit and tie at work!), women wore dresses, and both wore hats. What else has changed?

There was a time when New York was home to not only one, but several, beer breweries.

Brooklyn alone was home to the beer manufacturers of Trommers, Schlitz, Pabst, Rheingold and Shaeffer Brewery. Another New York brewery, Ballantine, also shared the attention of New Yorker�s.

Can you remember any of their jingles? If you�re a Mets fan, I�m sure you remember the Rheingold commercials (�My beer is Rheingold, the dry beer��).


When the Metropolitan Police Department took over the policing of New York City on July 1, 1857 their numbers were low. In part this was because they would not take anyone who had been on the old Municipal Police Department.

On July 3, 1857, the Board of Police Commissioner, expecting trouble from gangs, appointed 300 citizens as Special Policemen for the upcoming 4th of July holiday.

Thomas Sparks was one of those appointed a special patrolman.

On July 4, 1857, during the "Dead Rabbit Riots" Sparks arrested a man for assault. While taking his prisoner to the White Street station house he was hit over the head with a club. He was taken to his home at 100 East 16th Street where he died on July 8, 1857 from his injuries. Special Patrolman Sparks was 40 years old.

The Dead Rabbit riots occurred between the Dead Rabbits a Irish gang from the Five Points area of Manhattan and the Bowery Boys, a Native American gang from the Bowery. The riot lasted over the course of three days, and at least 12 people were killed in fights between the two gangs, who used firearms, brickbats and clubs.

The police were not armed with firearms, only their clubs, which did very little to stop the fighting. It was only when three regiments of the National Guard were called out and marched into the battle area that the riot ended.


September 12, 1968 Ptl John Madden, 104 Pct, LOD Heart attack
September 12, 1991 PO Hector Fontanez, 47 Pct, Shot during investigation
September 13, 1928 Ptl Jeremiah Brosnan, 24 Pct, Shot by perp
September 14, 1931 Sgt Timothy Murphy, 8 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
September 14, 1974 PO Bruce Anderson, 32 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
September 15, 1931 Ptl William Eberhardt, 15 Pct, auto accident on patrol
September 15, 1979 PO Melvin Hopkins, 77 Pct, Shot, robbery, off duty
September 16, 1927 Ptl Henry E.A. Meyer, 54 Pct, shot-robbery arrest
September 16, 1975 PO Andrew Glover, 9 Pct, shot-assasination
September 16, 1975 Sgt Frederick Reddy, 9 Pct, shot-assasination
September 16, 1977 PO Daniel Nowomlynski, 23 Pct, shot-off duty
September 18, 1927 Ptl Jerome DeLorenzo, 4 Pct, Shot-accidental discharge
September 19, 1943 Sgt Mathew McCormick, 120 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
September 21, 1952 Det Philip Lamonica, 42 Sq, Shot during arrest
September 21, 1984 PO Irma Lozada, TPD D-33, Shot-robbery arrest (RIP, Fran!)
September 22, 1946 Ptl William Brophy, 109 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
September 22, 1983 PO Joseph Hamperian, TPD-SCU, Struck by auto
September 22, 1987 PO Robert Venable, TPD-D33, Shot during arrest
September 23, 1896 Ptl Thomas McIntyre, MTD, Horse accident
September 23, 1937 Det John Wilson, 1 Pct, Shot-robbery
September 23, 1941 Ptl James Schowers, 28 Pct, LOD heart attack
September 23, 1970 Ptl Michael Paolilo, IdentUnit, Stabbed-off duty investigation

My note: It�s been twenty-one years, how time passes by. In special memory for Fran Lozada. Rest in peace, Fran. From all your friends at District 33, the Transit Police Department, and the NYPD.

Thursday, September 08, 2005


By Stacy Horn

It�s often been said that you can�t tell a book by it�s cover. It�s also true hat you can�t often tell a book by it�s review, either.

This book chronicles the few years this writer spent with the Cold Case Squad, spanning from early 2001 to early 2005, and documents the efforts of some of the detectives from this squad in solving cold cases. For true crime fans, this is a worthwhile book to read. You may even pick up some investigative tips along the way. It certainly does a good job explaining the intricacies of DNA and its application to homicide investigations � for that alone I recommend it.

While I enjoyed the book, finding it to be a very easy read (2 days cover to cover), not everyone agrees.

According to a review in TIME OUT NEW YORK, they found the book to be a �snooze with amateurish turgid prose�, and they �wonder why the NYPD gave access t such a shoddy writer in the first place�. Well, be that as it may, it still merits a �Recommend� reading from The Minister of Investigation.

If you know Vito Spano, you can hear the words coming out of his mouth as they are recalled in the book. Vito has a large part in the book, as he was the C.O. during the main part of the book�s time frame. Eloquent, for sure.

I learned a lot personally from Vito about DNA and its application to homicide investigations, and his true dedication to this comes very clear while reading this text.

Perhaps the book is a better read for those who know some of the players. The author did a great job in revealing the hard work and tenacity of the Cold Case detective�s, highlighting Lt Phil Panzarella, Lt Joe Pollini, Lt Bob McHugh (but only briefly, Bob), and the investigations of Detective�s Wendell Stradford, Steve Kaplan, and Tommy Wray. She also hits a lot of the department �politics� on the head as well.

Brooklyn North Detective�s will probably find the investigation that led to the arrest in the murder of P.O. Ronald Stapleton, from the 77 Precinct, who was killed in 1977 outside a Brooklyn bar. Detective Steve Kaplan handled this investigation, that was hampered by Stapleton�s attorney � Robert Race � who made a false statement at the time of the murder that had detective�s looking in the wrong direction. Yes, Brooklyn North Detective�s, Mike Race�s brother the lawyer � sound familiar?

You�ll have to read the book (or perhaps you can figure it out on your own) who the author was referring to when she described one of the bosses there as �crusty�, and �unreceptive to authority�. Then there was also the boss she referred to simply as �a dick�. Any guesses? (If you�re really stumped, drop me an e-mail).

What can I say. I liked the book, and think you will too. And Vito, I�m holding my copy on the side for an autograph!


I enjoyed a passage from the book, THE RESTLESS SLEEP, about NYPD culture. If you�re here, you know it all too well.

�The NYPD is not the place to go out on a limb� No one in the NYPD could ever conceivably utter these words: �We just spent a million dollars and it didn�t work� (My note � what about MISD?). To make sure that never happens, a culture has evolved that is openly and effectively hostile to risk and gleefully punishes failure. Few commanders are willing to try anything that hasn�t already been clearly demonstrated � by someone else � to work� Traditionally, careers in the NYPD are not made by trying new things. Careers are made b y never making mistakes. Keep your head down and do your job�.

And, what about a passage on the forces we always seem to be fighting? I particularly liked the following, and got a little bit of a chuckle, as I�m sure Al Meller will, at one particular point that was made:

�Between their own (NYPD) culture and an unsympathetic public and press, they can�t seem to win. When they�re aggressive they�re doing too much, but when crime goes up they�re not doing enough. It discourages trying and fosters insularity, discontent, and bickering, The result is that cops do things the way they always have, and that change, which is hard enough to bring about as it is, is so violently resisted and so slow within the NYPD that some police department annual reports from a hundred years ago read as if they were written today.

�For instance, the NYPD�s enemies have remained constant: the press, the public, and the FDNY. �Judging from past experience�, Police Commissioner Richard Enright wrote in 1921, �it is quite useless to expect the press to publish anything about the Police Department except sensational nonsense and scandalous falsehoods, unless it serves some ulterior motive of the management to tell the truth.� � The NYPD has been complaining about the fire department even longer. �Perhaps if the members of the fire department were paid�, the 1864 Annual Report suggests, �firemen wouldn�t be so violent and rowdy. That and the fact that too many of them live in the firehouse and not at home. Such a course of life is fatal to the men and fearfully mischievous to society�.


The first police department to utilize bullet comparison as an investigative aid was Scotland Yard.

Using fingerprints in criminal investigations was first suggested by a microscopist in the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1877, but he was ignored. Tokyo was the first to give it a try in 1880.

The Sorbonne produced the first truly serious study of hairs in 1910, and the first police lab was established in France.

DNA was first used forensically in England.

The lifting of trace evidence with tape was developed by a Swiss criminalist lab.

Superglue fuming for latent prints was developed by the National Police Agency in Japan.

What about the NYPD Lab?

A 1948 NYPD lab chart lists items like blood examinations, gas analysis, and photomicrography alongside some rather unusual technologies such as retrieving magnets (maybe used to recover guns from water?).

A 1963 NYPD report notes an image-maker known as the Variable Image Reflector was developed for producing pictures of suspects based on eyewitness descriptions. In 1967, the idea of photographing latent prints with a modified Polaroid camera was introduced. This �one on one� camera quickly was deployed as a quick way for detectives to make copies of mug shots when additional copies were made � and most detectives today know that as the sole reason for this camera.

In 1905 Detective Joseph Faurot went to Scotland Yard to learn about fingerprinting, and while his newfound skills were initially treated with skepticism, in 1911 the first conviction in the US based solely on fingerprint evidence was gained through evidence and testimony supplied by Faurot.

And it was the NYPD that had the first airborne unit in the world, which was put into place in 1929.


Author Stacy Horn does a good job reviewing the workings of the Medical Examiner�s DNA Lab, and explaining some common pitfalls.

For example, did you know that a DNA test can cost anywhere from about thirty dollars, to analyze a pristine sample taken from a convicted felon under the best possible circumstances, to five hundred to two thousand dollars, t test evidence gathered at a crime scene. The cost of processing the DNA comes from the ME�s budget, so you can understand the sometimes-battle we encounter.

The turnaround time for a DNA test at the ME�s lab is currently around fifty-four days, which is faster than every large forensic lab in the country, which typically takes three to six months to come back with a report. Small, private labs have short intervals because they don�t analyze as many samples. The actual test result time is approximately three to four days; the volume of work causes the turnaround time to increase.


The Medical Examiner is tasked with determining the cause and manner of death. What�s the difference?

Cause is a medical distinction. Some examples of a cause of death would be �blunt force trauma�, or �strangulation�, etc.

Manner of death is a legal distinction. Manner of death include homicide, accidental, and suicide.

What about a CUPPI? That stands for �Cause Undetermined Pending Police Investigation�. The ME needs you to tell them more about what happened.


Advances in DNA testing has resulted in a process referred to as PCR helping to type smaller samples.

PCR, polymerase chain reaction, allows scientists to develop DNA profiles from only a few skin cells. This process was first introduced in 1985, but it wasn�t until 1992 that it began to be used forensically in New York, when the lab was equipped with the necessary equipment.

It is this PCR testing that ha detectives reviewing old cases for evidence that may contain DNA that was not previously able to be detected.

DNA, once a profile is obtained, is submitted to a database for comparison.

The Medical Examiner in New York City, which is the designated DNA source, enters the DNA profiles they process into the LDIS database, or Local DNA Index System.

If there is �no hit�, it is then sent, and processed, into the New York State Database, the SDIS, which is maintained at the New York State Police Forensic Investigation Center.

After that, if still �no hit�, it is sent to be processed through the FBI�s National Database � CODIS � the Combined DNA Index System.

The FBI started collecting DNA samples in 1990, and Congress passed the DNA Identification Act in 1994, allowing them to formally begin a national database. This database did not become operational until 1998.

New York State�s Database went live in March 2000.

The NYC Medical Examiner began collecting profiles in 1990, and started its own local database in 1996, then joined CODIS in 2000.

When you consider how new these database systems are, you can understand how it will take some time to accumulate samples for profiles to realize the potential of DNA profiling. As of August 2004, there were 12,460 DNA profiles in the NYC database; 139,344 in the New York State collection; and 1,945,163 combined profiles at the national level. As the samples grow, the results improve.

Local samples are uploaded to the state monthly, and the state samples are uploaded to the national level every week. NYC�s OCME generates approximately 1,500 DNA profiles a month, and because not all 1,500 tests produce unique profiles, they end up uploading around 500 of those to the state. Individual state laws, which limit whose DNA can be collected, stored, and shared, are preventing CODIS from growing as quickly as many of us would prefer.


Referenced earlier as taking part in one of the "First's", and just in case you were wondering, I thought I'd add the following piece of information.

Dating back to 1253, Sorbonne is frequently used as a name for the University of Paris.

The Sorbonne University is located in the center of the famous Latin Quarter of Paris on the Left Bank. Founded in the 13th century, The Sorbonne University today houses the Arts and Human Sciences faculties of the University of Paris.(From the site where you get more than just buff stuff!)


I have been having increasing difficulty in preparing a posting at the same frequency I had been able to for the past several years.

I am now trying to adhere to the format of posting something at least once a month (alright, I�d really like to say it would be twice a month, but I�m trying to be realistic), but include more items in greater detail.

It�s a plan, anyway.

If you come across any interesting items, you can forward them to me. Any help I can get is appreciated. Find something you find of value, and would like to share with others? Send it off to me at:


September 1, 1891, Ptl John Sherman, 26 Pct, Stabbed during arrest
September 1, 1923 Ptl John Egan, 51 Pct, Shot by perp
September 1, 1954 Ptl Anthony Balga, PBBklyn, Auto accident on patrol
September 2, 1953 Sgt Saul Starett, 50 Pct, Electrocution
September 2, 1956 Ptl William Long, 103 Pct, Shot-arrest
September 2, 1982 PO Robert Seton-Harris, 122 Pct, Heart attack LOD
September 3, 1932 Ptl Peter DeCarlo, 32 Pct, Shot-Robbery in progress
September 3, 1967 Ptl John Darcy, 28 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
September 4, 1961 Ptl Francis Walsh, 32 Pct, Shot-robbery
September 4, 1962 Ptl Robert Byrnes, 94 Pct, Shot by EDP
September 7, 1970 Ptl Patrick Canavan, PA, Stabbed, off-duty incident
September 9, 1979 PO Edwin Fogel, Hwy1, Shot-car stop
September 10, 1951 Det James Daggett, Safe,Loft&Truck Sqd, Explosion
September 10, 1964 Ptl Anthony Esposito, 66 Pct, LOD Hear attack

September 11, 1976 PO Brian Murray, Bomb Sq, Explosion investigation

WTC Victims of Attack:
Sgt John Coughlin #3751, ESS4
Sgt Michael Curtin #3256, Ess2
Sgt Rodney Gillis, #1889, ESS8
Sgt Timothy Roy #2926, STED
Det Claude Richards #244, Bomb Squad
Det Joseph Vigiano #4511, ESS3
PO John Dallara #4011, ESS2
PO Vincent Danz #2166, ESS3
PO Jerome Dominguez #10003, ESS3
PO Stephen Driscoll #17482, ESS4
PO Mark Ellis #11441, TD4
PO Robert Fazio #6667, 13 Pct
PO Ronald Kloepfer #22403, ESS7
PO Thomas Langone #14356, ESS10
PO James Leahy #8943, 6 Pct
PO Brian McDonnell #6889, ESS1
PO John Perry #3266, 40 Pct
PO Glen Pettit #3815, PA
PO Moira Smith #10467, 13 Pct
PO Ramon Suarez #12671, TD4
PO Paul Talty #28907, ESS10
PO Santos Valentin #21630, ESS7
PO Walter Weaver #2784, ESS3