Monday, March 29, 2004


New software tools and tactics help investigators search computers and networks for evidence that lawbreakers thought they had deleted.

Taken from an article written by Steven Marlin of InformationWeek for the February 23, 2004 issue, this is an example of where modern investigative efforts are landing. The age old gumshoe image of the detective pounding the pavement to get information is being replaced by the computer-hacking cyber-crime investigator, using modern technology to outsmart the fraudster.

Technology has played a role in criminal investigations since before Sherlock Holmes' time. But today's gumshoes are as likely to be skilled in reading spreadsheets as well as rap sheets, screen shots as well as mug shots, paper trails as well as powder trails, thanks in part to new laws such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the USA Patriot Act.

So corporate felons beware: Those files you thought you erased can and will be used against you in a court of law. Investigators today possess software tools that search PCs, servers, and networks for evidence such as text files, images, and E-mails that can be used to ferret out white-collar criminals.

In searching for bits of evidence, investigators look in places many computer users don't even know exist: the unallocated memory containing fragments of deleted files or, if they're lucky, the entire file.

Such a search can produce the smoking gun in a case, says Ives Potrafka, senior examiner at the Center for Computer Forensics, a private company that assists law firms and legal departments. Before joining the company, he spent four years with the High Tech Crimes Unit of the Michigan attorney general's office.

Computer forensics is a combination of science and art. "It's a marriage of technology and good old-fashioned detective work," he says.

In one case, a client sued a brokerage firm, alleging that it had denied access to its Web site, preventing the client from executing a large trade in 2000. By the time the case came to trial 2-1/2 years later, the firm assumed that all relevant electronic files had been deleted. Using sophisticated search tools, however, the center was able to find Web-site records to prove that the client had indeed visited the site on the day in question. The case was thrown out of court.

Since the Enron case, in which its auditor, Arthur Andersen, destroyed piles of evidence, recovery and analysis of data has come to form a central part of internal investigations. Also, provisions in Sarbanes-Oxley require companies to collect, search, and preserve electronic data.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act isn't the only thing likely to trigger forensic investigations. The California Security Breach law requires companies to investigate and report incidents in which customer-account information has been compromised. The Basel Committee, an international regulatory body, requires banks to collect and preserve forensic evidence to "contain and mitigate incidents, ensure business continuity, and prosecute the perpetrator."

There's still an extensive backlog of pre-Sarbanes-Oxley investigations waiting to be tackled, says Philip Upton, head of forensic technology solutions at PricewaterhouseCoopers. Investigations can take months or, in some cases, years.

Investigations can be triggered by noncompliance issues, such as violation of company policies, circulation of inappropriate content, or misappropriation of information. Sonnenschein, Nath & Rosenthal LLP, a 600-attorney law firm, has a thriving computer-forensics practice. It uses Guidance Software Inc.'s EnCase
to create bit images of the hard drives of up to 20 PCs simultaneously, cutting 90% off the time it would take to search each hard drive separately.

Computer-forensics software is a fast-growing part of the $500 million-a-year corporate investigations industry; Guidance's revenue doubled from $10 million in 2002 to $20 million last year, and it's projected to double again this year as companies build in-house investigative capabilities while still relying on
outside consultants for more-difficult cases.

Computer forensics has evolved steadily as a discipline, says Jim Doyle, director of Northeast operations at Guidance. Like many in the profession, he's a former cop. In 1995, he was tapped to form the New York Police Department's computer crimes unit, which dealt with investigating computer-related crimes. Recruits were given a crash course in evidence-gathering techniques. Says Doyle, "We took detectives off the street working on homicide, rape, and robbery cases and made them computer crime investigators."


The following include links related to computer crime, data recovery, and other interesting techno-fraud articles.

Digital Forensics Links

Kulish Forensics

Huge Reference and some articles to read

Computer Crime Related Links

Kim K's Forensic page

Check out "Gov't Forensic Publications"

Zeno's Computer Forensic


Medical Information Bureau 781-329-4500

Life Insurance industry�s database and clearinghouse of information.

MIB Group, Inc. ("MIB") is an association of over 500 U.S. and Canadian life insurance companies providing information and database management services to the financial services industry. Organized in 1902, MIB's core fraud protection services protect insurers, policyholders and applicants from attempts to conceal or omit information material to the sound and equitable underwriting of life, health, disability, and long term care insurance.
This is one of the ways the industry protects itself from insurance fraud and fraudulent applications for life insurance. It can also provide information for an investigator seeking background on life insurance policies.


It was nice to see Sgt. TOM FOX of the 90 Squad attain the SDS designation.

We are all glad to see CHRIS SCANDOLE of the 79 Squad get recognized with the Detective SECOND GRADE designation! Chris is a hard worker and a credit to all; we wish you all the best. Could a celebratory steak-fest be in sight?

Also promoted to Second Grade was Richard Brittson of Computer Crime Sqd. Richie is a Brooklyn North Alum, and continues to do a superb job over at Computer Crimes.

Best wishes extended to all!


PO Kevin Gillespie, Shield # 4503 of the Street Crime Unit was killed in the line of duty on March 14, 1996. Kevin was shot while conducting an investigation.

Officer Gillespie was shot and killed by a man he had just pulled over. Officer Gillespie and his partner, members of the City Wide Street Crime Unit, had stopped a BMW in the Bronx which had been car-jacked earlier in the evening. As the two officers were approaching the vehicle, the men inside opened fire. One bullet struck Officer Gillespie in the shoulder, above his vest. The bullet went straight down his torso striking many organs. He died an hour later at nearby St. Barnabas Hospital. Officer Gillespie's partner thought that he had dove for cover and pursued the suspects in a running gun battle down the Grand Concourse. One suspect was shot five times and the other was arrested at the scene. The suspect later committed suicide in jail by hanging himself.

Officer Gillespie was killed a few days before his 34th birthday. Ten thousand police officers attended Officer Gillespie�s funeral; afterwards, the young father of two sons, a Marine veteran of the Gulf War, was given a proper hero�s burial in a military cemetery on Long Island.

Monday, March 22, 2004


In Los Angeles � the City of Angels � homicides are investigated by division (precinct) detectives. The more bizarre and unusual cases, however, are assigned to one of the two Homicide Special teams working out of Robbery Homicide Division.

Looking back to the 1940�s, LA had become known for its rather lurid crimes that seemed to plague the city. While many of the noted mob leaders visited regularly and had a foothold in the city, the city was too spread out geographically for the mob to control the city as they did some east coast cities.

By the late 1940�s the murder numbers in LA surpassed the 100 mark. A centralized Homicide Bureau worked out of a small office in city hall, manned by a crew of seasoned detectives with citywide jurisdiction. The more baffling cases, and special cases of notoriety, were �sent downtown� from the Division�s for these central office detectives to handle.

These detectives soon developed a cachet that set them apart from other officers in the department. Most of them were big, burly WWII vets, who dressed in double-breasted suits with florid silk ties and expensive snap-brim hats; they wore gold ID bracelets and flashy gold rings, and they jotted notes with gold mechanical pencils. (And we thought the New York detectives were the fashion leaders?)

By the end of 1947, the city rivaled New York and Chicago for its notorious crimes. Such headline leaders that included the (still) unsolved mutilation murder of the female victim known as the Black Dahlia murder, another involving a female serial killer who killed three husbands and a boyfriend, and the murder of gangster Bugsy Siegel, LA detectives certainly had their hands full.

The LAPD�s road to reform began in the 1950�s, when innovative crime fighter William H. Parker, was named chief of the department. Parker created an aggressive, efficient, militaristic organization. Parker was also known as a law enforcement innovator who emphasized technology, and was one of the first chiefs in the country to establish a division to analyze crime.

It was in 1968 that LAPD was overwhelmed by an assassination that changed the course of the nation�s history. The murder of Robert F. Kennedy on June 5, 1968, demanded that the LAPD conduct a prompt and efficient investigation. Even though the killer was apprehended with the pistol still in his hand, leaders wished to ensure that the investigation left the public assured there was no enduring conspiracy theory or interminable second-guessing after the case was wrapped up. It was felt that the Homicide Bureau�s resources were inadequate for such a scope, so a massive task force was established.

This special task force was known as Special Unit Senator. Fifty detectives were drafted from the Homicide Bureau and other divisions throughout the city, and an immense investigation was begun.

At the end of the year, with their duties completed, it was decided that in the era of political assassinations and serial killers, the Homicide Bureau was understaffed and overburdened. In addition to handling the specialized cases they also handled all of the homicide cases in Central Division, the downtown city-hall area, as well.

It was in 1969 that Robbery-Homicide Division was created within the LAPD. A specialized unit with adjoining squad rooms, combining robbery and homicide specialists who would investigate only the most difficult cases in the city, was the vision of Deputy Chief Robert Houghton, a detective leader in the LAPD. Many murders are robbery-related, so Houghton figured that the two units could benefit by sharing information. Because the new unit would have more detectives than the old Homicide Bureau, investigators could handle a mammoth case like the RFK assassination without a special task force.

The Robbery-Homicide Division (RHD) investigates homicides, bank robberies, and other selected robberies, extortions, sex crimes and kidnappings on a Citywide basis. RHD is also responsible for investigating officer-involved shootings, incidents that result in injury or death to the officer, threats against officers, and deaths of persons in Department custody.

The task of investigating the homicide cases was delegated to one of the two homicide teams, designated as Homicide Special Section 1 and Homicide Special Section 2. The Robbery-Homicide Division has also expanded to include a Rape Special Section, and a Bank Robbery Section, in addition to the homicide and robbery teams.

Their duties were also expanded in the wake of a scandal involving Rampart Division officers in the late 1990�s. All officer-involved shootings are now investigated by Robbery-Homicide Division. This has resulted in Homicide Special being called out close to a hundred times a year for shootings and threats against officers. You can imagine that this is not necessarily a welcomed task; it takes time away from ongoing homicide investigations, and has caused considerable tension within the unit. There are many that believe that detectives who are considered the finest of the city should be allowed to do what they do best: investigate homicides. I guess no matter where you travel, detectives still agonize over the same details � let us do our job and investigate crimes. Some things never change.


The installation of the first signal boxes in 1885 provided communication to be enabled between the patrolman on foot post and the precinct.

Around 1885 a system of telegraph signal boxes was begun in the Bronx where posts were long and isolated. At the same time, responsible citizens were furnished with a key to the box so that they could call the precinct in the event of an emergency.

The patrolman was required to visit the box as often as the precinct captain determined. He carried a key and by a set system of signals was able to communicate with the precinct. Both patrolman and responsible citizens carried a booklet which gave them the series of code signals used. Remember, the system was telegraphic � dots and dashes � and not telephonic.

Also around this time private telegraph boxes were installed in the offices of commercial firms which felt the need for quick police assistance. These firms, such as the Bleeker Street Savings Bank, Stuyvesant Safe Deposit Vaults and the New York Gas Company, all bore the expense of installation and maintenance in return for the service.


Perusing an old issue of SPRING 3100 from 1949 I came across an article on the Police Sports Association. This apparently is the forerunner to the Police Olympics.

It was interesting to note that there were over 300 participants from this department for a department-wide Track and Field Competition. The tug-of-war had a very hearty turnout, as did the Horseshoes competition! By the way, Mounted did NOT win the Horseshoes event, Manhattan East did!


Find anyone anywhere in the world phone directories

International Phone Books and Directories


March 22, 1932 Ptl George Myers, Line of duty injury
March 23, 1986 PO James Holmes, PSA3, Shot-off duty robbery
March 26, 1949 Ptl Anthony Oetheimer, 114 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
March 26, 1992 PO Joseph Alcamo, 100 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
March 27, 1921 Ptl Joseph Connelly, 10 Div, Shot-investigation
March 27, 1944 Ptl Arthur Eggers, Traffic C, Auto accident on patrol
March 28, 1922 Ptl James Baker, 83 Pct, Motorcycle accident
March 31, 1914 Ptl Thomas Wynn, 155 Pct, Arrest-robbery

Monday, March 15, 2004


In an article authored by Becky McCall and appearing on the February 17, 2004 edition of BBC News World Edition, the following item concerning �Brain Fingerprints� was found.

A controversial technique for identifying a criminal mind using involuntary brainwaves that could reveal guilt or innocence is about to take center stage in a last-chance court appeal against a death-row conviction in the US.

The technique, called "brain fingerprinting", has already been tested by the FBI and has now become part of the key evidence to overturn the murder conviction of Jimmy Ray Slaughter who is facing execution in Oklahoma.

Brain Fingerprinting, developed by Dr Larry Farwell, chief scientist and founder of Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, is a method of reading the brain's involuntary electrical activity in response to a subject being shown certain images relating to a crime.

Unlike the polygraph or lie detector to which it is often compared, the accuracy of this technology lies in its ability to pick up the electrical signal, known as a p300 wave, before the suspect has time to affect the output.

"It is highly scientific, brain fingerprinting doesn't have anything to do with the emotions, whether a person is sweating or not; it simply detects scientifically if that information is stored in the brain," says Dr Farwell.

"It doesn't depend upon the subjective interpretation of the person conducting the test. The computer monitors the information and comes up with information present or information absent."

Brain fingerprinting is admissible in court for use in identifying or exonerating individuals in the US.


With the establishment of a regular police force in 1845 brought with it the introduction of mechanical communication as a means of getting assistance quickly.

Telegraph communication was set up in the same year in all precincts connected directly with central headquarters. At this point, the communication system was set up for the convenience of the department, allowing a communication method between HQ and precincts. The public benefited through the telegraph system but as yet took no active part in it.

There was no centralized means of the public calling for police assistance until the first signal boxes were installed in 1885.
The telegraph system allowed precincts to be connected with headquarters, but there was still no communication with the patrolman once he left to take his post.


It has been noted on this site previously that a procedure known as a Line-Up, which consisted of those arrested the day before parading across the line-up stage for viewing, was conducted each day at Police Headquarters.

This was intended to familiarize the detectives with those people who were arrested, as well as affording an opportunity for recent victims to make possible identifications.

The procedure, as noted in the Manual of Procedure, specified that the Line-Up was to be conducted daily except Sundays and Holidays, beginning at 9am.

The Borough and District Detective Commanders were required to attend on Mondays and Thursdays.

The Squad Commanders attended on Tuesdays and Fridays.

In addition, each day, one half of the detectives of each borough were directed to attend the line up as well.


On March 18, 1972, Ptl. ELIJAH STROUD, Sh# 4204, of the 88 Pct, was killed in the line of duty during a robbery.

Patrolman Stroud was the 3rd New York City police officer to die in the line of duty in 1972.

A former Fort Greene resident and regular customer at Irving�s Meat Market on Putnam Avenue in Brooklyn, Ptl. Stroud was off �duty, doing his usual Saturday night shopping for the family on March 18. While in the butcher shop along with several other customers, Ptl. Stroud suddenly realized he was in the midst of a hold-up when he saw a gunman with an employee behind the counter moving toward the register. Immediately, he drew his revolver and took cover, crouching on the opposite side of the end of the counter. His back was partially turned to the door. When he identified himself, shots rang out from the doorway. A second unnoticed gunman had opened fire on the officer. Ptl. Stroud whirled around and got off two shots before he was hit in the head by a ricocheting bullet. He was slumped over, supported by the counter and possible already dead when the gunman near the register ran up, reached over the counter and shot Ptl. Stroud in the head again, at point-blank range. Shocked by the wanton slaying, the shop�s owner attempted to subdue the killer behind the counter. At this, the gunman by the door ran over and pistol-whipped the owner to the ground. The two murderers fled, without money.

Both suspect were later captured in Plainfield, New Jersey by a patrolman who recognized the suspect's car from a bulletin that had been posted. Both suspects were members of the Black Liberation Army.

Patrolman Stroud was 49 years old and had 19 years on the force. He is survived by his wife and 3 children.


Here�s a great site, NYPD News, that you MUST check out. NOTE that this site is NOT affiliated with the New York City Police department; it is an unofficial site, but certainly one worth bookmarking. Check it out and tell me if you don�t agree.

NYPD Angels

Make sure this web site is bookmarked as one of your �favorites�, and share it with your friends. It�s been noted on this page before, but for all those who may have missed it, this is one of the best sites dedicated to our fallen brothers and sister in this department. Please visit the site, and contribute an entry if appropriate. Thanks so much to Dee for all the time she has put into this site!


March 10, 1917 Ptl Deforest Fredenburg & Ptl John Lober, ** See Note Below
March 10, 1994 PO Sean McDonald, 44 Pct, Shot-robbery
March 11, 1930 Ptl Joseph Scott, 32 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
March 11, 1947 Ptl Winthrop Paris, 30 Pct, Shot-Investigation, off duty
March 11, 1959 Ptl Robert Forrest, 24 Pct, Off duty, LOD heart attack
March 11, 1987 Det Louis Miller, FTU 10, Shot-Burglary in progress
March 12, 1909 Lt. Joseph Petrosino, DetDiv, Investigation while in Italy
March 12, 1931 Ptl James Flanagan, 25 Pct, Shot-off duty investigation
March 14, 1872 Ptl Phillip Lambreck, 19 Pct, Injuries during assault
March 14, 1967 Det John Pollins, Narco, Buy/bust arrest
March 14, 1996 PO Kevin Gillespie, SWCU, Shot-investigation
March 15, 1922 Ptl James McMail, 85 Pct, Assault arrest, shot
March 15, 1930 Ptl Walter DeCastillo, 84 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
March 15, 1934 Ptl Philip Clarius, 78 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
March 15, 1936 Ptl Dioniso Pasquarella, 75 Pct, Shot- off duty altercation
March 16, 1940 Ptl Francis Dolan, 10 Pct, Fell from auto
March 17, 1956 Ptl George Lessler, 10 Pct, LOD heart attack
March 18, 1926 Ptl William Higgins, 13 Div, Line of duty injury
March 18, 1948 Ptl John Casey, 20 Pct, Line of duty injury
March 18, 1972 Ptl Elijah Stroud, 88 Pct, Shot-robbery
March 19, 1943 Ptl James Donovan, 75 Pct, Shot � off duty investigation
March 20, 1804 Ptl Hugh Enright, 24 Pct, Shot- burglary arrest
March 20, 1963 Ptl John Tuohy, TD2, Heart attack chasing felon

Note: ** Thanks to the web site, I have been able to ascertain the following information concerning the deaths of Ptl. Lober & Fredenburg.

Patrolman Lober and Patrolman DeForest Fredenburg, both assigned to the Marine Division (Harbor), were killed when their police launch was struck by a tugboat in the Hell Gate Rapids section of the East River.

Patrolman Lober had been assigned to the Marine Division for four years. He was 32 years old.

Patrolman Fredenburg had been with the Marine Division for 20 years. He was 53 years old.

Wednesday, March 10, 2004


I found a timeless article in a 1948 edition of SPRING 3100, titled �Squad Room Dialogue Between a Rookie Detective and an Old Timer�, that is certainly worth noting on this site.

Authored by Detective John P. Werle, Retired from the Sixteenth Detective District, I�m sure you�ll agree that it�s as true today as it was 55-years ago.

�What qualifications do you think are necessary for a fellow to have who aspires to be a successful detective?� the rookie asks.

The old timer goes on to recite to him what he describes as the �I.P.� test. Much like an �I.Q.� test, the I.P. test relates to certain requisites that a detective ought to have.

�There are ten words, five starting with �I� and five with �P�, which develop into a sort-of ten commandments for a detective. They start with �Thou shalt have� instead of �Thou shalt not�, and they go like this.

The I�s are Interest, Industry, Initiative, Intelligence, Indefatigability.

The P�s are Personality, Patience, Perception, Persistence, and Prudence.

To get information in detective work, which is really the short cut to definite results, one must necessarily have a personality which will blend itself into the good will of all kinds of people, and especially those who are in a position to give information. One must have the respect and confidence of others, else it is more than likely that no information would be forthcoming. Personality is therefore listed at the head of the �P�s�.

Without interest in the work you are doing, what good are the other qualifications? This must be sustained interest, too. It cannot be set aside for other endeavors, social or otherwise. In other words, you must be more interested in your job than anything else.

Interest, industry, initiative and intelligence really take care of the last � indefatigability � for if one has interest and is industrious and intelligent, it may very well follow that his indefatigability may be assumed. You will find throughout your career that few have all of the requisites, and that many have at least several of them. The more of these qualifications they possess, the more nearly will they be paragons of virtue.

You�ll often find cases where a man is doubled up with a partner, that what one partner lacks, the other has, and the ideal combination is the team that can, between them, show all of these qualifications.�


All of us in Brooklyn North extend warm wishes to Captain Charles �Butch� Neacy, who has just taken over the helm of the Cold Case Squad.

Butch started his investigative career right here in Brooklyn North, in the 75 Squad, as a Detective. He was also the Squad Commander of the 81 Squad prior to his promotion to Captain, and served as the Investigative Captain for the 73-75 Squads. Absolutely no stranger to investigations, we all know that Captain Neacy will serve this department well in his new position.

We�ll miss you from the day-to-day business around here, but wish you �ALL THE BEST� in your new assignment. Just remember, you�re still expected to make the regular meetings of the Brooklyn North Squad Commander�s Conference!


Did you know that, in 1894, Superintendent of Police Thomas Byrnes, in a political pronouncement over the use of force by uniformed members of the service, took nightsticks and revolvers away from police officers on patrol.

This led to a courageous decision by another police leader, Teddy Roosevelt, that restored the reasonable expectation that police officers have a basic right to defend themselves against deadly physical force or the perceived use of deadly physical force.

(Thanks to Ret. Det Mike Bosak, an NYPD historian, for this info).


Accident Investigation and Reconstruction Resource Center - The directory of accident investigation and reconstruction experts. It also contains a training events schedule, products section, newsroom and weekly tips written by experts.

True Crimes: The Ultimate Crime Resource - Lots of links & info.


Here is another correction and update on an NYPD Memorial listing.

While the official NYPD Memorial list gives the LOD date of death of Ptl. Samuel T. Cunningham as February 15, 1917, this is incorrect. Ptl. Cunningham was shot on May 25, 1917 and died from his injuries on June 19, 1917.

On June 19, 1917, Ptl. Samuel T. Cunningham #5454 of the 42nd (34th) Precinct, died from injuries he sustained on May 25, 1917.

On that date he was on patrol riding a motorcycle, when he stopped for investigation an automobile at 207th St. and B�way in the Inwood section of Manhattan. The driver of the car produced a gun and shot at Cunningham.

Cunningham was wounded but as the car was pulling away he was able to get off one shot which struck the driver in his back. The car had been stolen from the area of 96th St. and Broadway. After making a getaway from Ptl. Cunningham the driver wrecked the auto when he ran into a pillar of the elevated subway at 10th Ave. and 205th Street.

Ptl. Cunningham was taken to St. Lawrence Hospital, where he died from his wounds on June 19, 1917. The murderer of Samuel Cunningham was not located and arrested until Dec. 2, 1917, when George Walter Stivers was traced to the Home Hotel in Newark, New Jersey.


February 28, 1928 Ptl John Hubbard, Traffic A, Auto accident on patrol
February 28, 1952 Sgt Paul Brooks, GCP Pct, Motorcycle accident
February 28, 1970 Ptl Michael Melchionna, TPD1, Shot-investigation
February 29, 1980 Ptl Irving Smith, TPD-PA, Shot-off duty robbery
March 1, 1945 PO Albert Black, Traffic F, Fire rescue
March 1, 1970 PO Joseph Mariconda, PO Patrick Harrington, Aviation
Helicopter Accident
March 2, 1924 PO Thomas Gaffney, 26 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
March 3, 1989 PO Robert Machate, BSTF, Shot-car stop
March 4, 1927 PO Henry Farrell, 3A Pct, Fire rescue
March 5, 1973 PO Irving Wright, 20 Pct, Shot-arrest
March 5, 1975 PO Robert Rogerson, Div.Licenses, Auto accident
March 9, 1948 Ptl Julius Mirell, 34 Pct, Shot-burglary
March 9, 1974 PO Timothy Hurley, 103 Pct, Shot-robbery

Wednesday, March 03, 2004


As February draws to a close, it is fitting that we note several members of the former NYC Transit Police Department who answered their last calls during the month of February in years past.

It was on February 28, 1970 that Ptl. MICHAEL MELCHIONA, assigned to District 1, was engaged in a deadly gun battle. Melchiona was 29 years old at the time, and had been a patrolman for four years when he was on solo-patrol at the 50th Street-Broadway IRT station. He encountered a suspicious male in the men�s restroom and, while examining identification, the man drew a gun and removed the officer�s gun before fleeing the station. Melchiona took off in pursuit, shouting for help. The gunman opened fire and shot and killed Melchiona, and was himself killed in a shootout that followed. Melchiona left a wife, a two-year-old son and a month-old daughter. A brother, Henry, also a Transit Police officer, retired in 1986. Henry Melchiona spent many years as a Firearms Instructor at the Transit Police Academy, and was responsible for teaching many recruits their first firearms skills. In addition, the Transit Police Columbia Association awarded an Annual Michael Melchiona Medal of Valor for a commendable police action which, I am very proud to say, I was so awarded in 1982.

On February 24, 1980, PO SERAPHIN (SAMMY) CALABRESE, of District 1, was on duty at the Columbus Circle subway station. He stopped a fare evader who turned on him, seized his gun and shot him fatally. Another Transit Police Officer, eating lunch in the area, heard of the incident on his portable radio and responded to the location. He encountered the suspect walking down the street with the officer�s gun and arrested him. Sammy Calabrese was survived by his wife, a daughter and stepdaughter.

Four days after Sammy Calabrese was killed, PO IRVING W. SMITH of the Transit Police Academy Range was killed trying to thwart a robbery. On February PO Smith had attended the funeral for Sammy Calabrese earlier in the day and then went to his parent�s residence in Brooklyn, in order to wish his mother a �Happy Birthday�. After this visit he went to a local bar to meet with some friends. While there several gunmen entered, announced a robbery, and Smith took police action. He was killed in the shootout that followed. His survivors included his wife and two sons.

In a postscript to the death of I.W. Smith, it is noted that Ret. Sgt. Chris Cincotta has a particularly fond memory of Smith. Smith�s mother and stepfather were neighbors of Chris Cincotta. Smith�s stepfather was Chief Lloyd Sealey, the former Borough Commander of Brooklyn North.

It�s hard to believe that it�s been twenty-four years since Sammy Calabrese and I.W. Smith were killed, and thirty-four years since Mike Melchiona was killed. Their memories should never be forgotten


Listing, as a behavior symptom, describes a series of events or information included within a subject�s response.
There are two important considerations with respect to listing by a subject. The first is that the subject decided, for some reason, to offer multiple answers within their response. The second is that, at a preconscious level, the subject decided on the order in which to present the multiple answers.

Listing is generally an indication of a rehearsed response.

In mentally preparing for an interview the deceptive suspect may anticipate certain threatening questions and prepare rehearsed responses to those questions. Consider, for example, the suspect guilty of a robbery who must explain why he was late arriving home from work the evening of the robbery. Obviously, he cannot tell the truth (that he was late because he was robbing a liquor store) so he must develop an alternative excuse.
As the suspect ponders possible alternative explanations, often a number of excuses occur to him and these invariably surface as a "list" within his response.

For example, the question "Why were you late getting home from work that night?" would lead to a response similar to "Well, first had a late order to fill so that put me behind schedule and second, because traffic was heavy, I decided to take a different route home and I got lost. Finally, I was running low on gas and stopped to fill up the tank and there was a line at the gas station."

When an investigator hears a response of this nature which lists explanations, a rehearsed response should be suspected. This is especially true when the response is denoted by reference points such as "first...", "second...", "third..." or, "A...", B...", "C...". This behavior suggests that the suspect is not being spontaneous in his answer but rather, is offering a rehearsed response.

In preparation for an interview, the innocent suspect does not go through this same thought process. The innocent suspect will certainly think about who may have committed the crime, why and how the crime was committed and what they were doing at the time of the crime. However, innocent suspects will not mentally rehearse their responses to anticipated interview questions. If the reader thinks back on a recent occurrence within their life where something unusual or irresponsible happened, e.g., why was a report turned in late?", almost always, there is a single principal explanation for our behaviors. Consequently, in the preceding robbery case, the following response would be more indicative of truthfulness:
"Why were you late getting home from work that night?"

"At about 4:45 my supervisor handed me a late order that had to be filled and I didn�t leave work until about 6:30."

When a subject hands you a �list�, your investigative instincts should ring a bell.


In an update to the recently posted item concerning the Memorial Mass for Det. Rodney Andrews and Det. James Nemorin, killed in the line of duty last year, here is the recently amended information:

Memorial Mass for Det. James Nemorin will be held:
March 10th, 2004 at 1100 hrs.
Our Lady of Refuge Church, 2020 Ocean Avenue, Brooklyn NY

Memorial Mass for Det. Rodney Andrews will be held:
March 13th 2004 at 1200 hrs.
Mount Carmel Church, 275 North 8th Street, Brooklyn, NY (in the 94 Pct area)


Here are some more items making their way around internet e-mail, to determine if you�re a dinosaur. Do you remember:

When there were no shoulder patches on the NYPD uniform?
Car seats made of gray alligator vinyl that never wore out but had two craters.
Standard transmissions in RMPs.
Day sticks
The KG file.
"Routes to Post" and "Post and Sector Relieving Points," and the shoofly waiting there for you.
When you needed 5 years on the job before you could TAKE the sergeant's exam.
When failing to take care of the flag and/or outside lights was a major department offense.
When Overtime was only paid the first paycheck of the month
The Sgt marching the outgoing platoon out the front door to stand in ranks in front of the stationhouse - "Take your posts"
Removable brass buttons for the dark blue uniform shirt..
Parking under an open hydrant to cool off un-air conditioned RMP's
Transit cops: Waiting to close out a �CN� over a booth telephone with someone at Operations who had you on hold for a half-hour.
More Transit: Calling in an aided to the Aided Desk, also by booth telephone, and dictating details � also a 30 minute project (at best).


Social Security Number Verification

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Social Security Number Verification

FBI's Handbook of Forensic Services
Check the links on the top also.