Monday, April 21, 2003


What's the difference?

Mass murder is defined as a single horrific incident in which a killer annihilates a number of victims.

Mass murderers are people like Richard Speck, who killed seven nurses in Chicago, Illinois on July 13, 1966, or James Oliver Huberty who walked into a McDonald's Restaurant in San Ysidro, California and killed twenty patrons before turning a gun on himself.

Serial murder was originally described in 1980 as "lust murder". The term first came into general usage around 1982-83. Unlike traditional mass murderers, who suddenly crack under pressure and kill everybody in sight, serial murderers kill and kill and kill, often for "years on end".

The general definition of serial murder, as defined by Prof. Steven Egger in his text THE KILLERS AMONG US, is when "one or more individuals commit a second murder and/or subsequent murders. There is generally no prior relationship between victim and attacker, and subsequent murders occur at different times and have no apparent connection to the initial murder. Subsequent murders are usually committed in different geographical locations. The motive is not for material gain; it is the murderers desire to have power or dominance over his victims. Victims may have symbolic value for the murderer, and may be perceived as being unable to defend themselves or alert others to their plight, and to be powerless at the time".


PO Frank Macri of PSA2 was diagnosed with cancer, and has undergone surgery, radiation treatment and chemotherapy.

He is currently undergoing bone replacement therapy.

Due to mounting medical bills, a 10-13 is being thrown by friends of Frank.

May 15, 2003 at Jackie Rielly�s
3964 Hempstead TPK
Bethpage, NY
7:30 pm to 11:30 pm

You will be able to purchase tickets and raffles at the door. A $20 donation is being requested.

Frank was always a very active police officer, and is well known around the 77 Precinct area, in and around the Albany Houses and Kingsboro Houses when he was on patrol, and later when he worked in SNEU.

His friends in PSA2 are collecting donations for the event. If you can, please consider a donation to help one of our own.


When did NYC Police Officers begin to carry guns?

Police Officers have been officially carrying firearms while on duty since 1887, Rule 503 of the "Manual of Rules and Regulations" stated: "In addition to the ordinary baton of the patrolman each member of the Police Force shall be armed while on duty with a revolving pistol of pattern and caliber approved by the board."

In 1895 a school of Police Pistol Practice opened. Pistol practice officially started on December 30, 1895.

On June 3, 1896 the Police Board resolved to adopt a standard revolver. A .32 caliber double action 4 inch barrel Colt revolver became the standard weapon.

In 1901 the department rule changed to "each, member of the patrol force shall be armed on duty with a revolving pistol of .38 caliber, stamped with a number corresponding to the shield number of the officer." Officers of the force were exempt from the new rule and allowed to continue carrying their .32 caliber revolver.

This service revolver remained the primary weapon of Police Officers until 1993 when the Department started to equip new officers with 9mm semi-automatic pistols.


A new police headquarters opened in 1910 after nearly five years of construction.

What is today the site of some very expensive condos, this was originally built as a modern police facility. From its great copper dome and rooftop observation deck to its basement pistol range, the five-story limestone structure was meant "to impress both the officer and the prisoner with the majesty of the law." I'm sure many a prisoner remarked, upon coming into the building for booking or to stand in The Lineup, how impressed they were with the building's architecture!


On April 2, 1914, Det. Joseph A. Guarnieri, #1098, of the 39th Sqd (23rd Det. Sqd) was killed in the line of duty.

During the evening of April 2, 1914, Charles Moser, a First Ave. saloonkeeper, reported to the 104th Pct. Detective Squad that he had been shot by a William Horgan, the father of Thomas Horgan a member of the Car Barn Gang.

Just that day Moser had testified before the Grand Jury in regard to a robbery by the younger Horgan. The detectives were able to trace William Horgan to 1880 Second Ave.

While searching a top floor flat, Det. Guarnieri was shot by William Horgan who had been hiding in the flat. Guarnieri was shot in the right eye and fell to the floor dead. Right behind Det. Guarnieri was Det. Lieut. George Haerie, who drew his revolver, and fired two shots at Horgan. Both shots struck Horgan in the head, killing him instantly.

Det. Joseph Guarnieri had been a police officer for seven years, he was 30 years old, married and the father of three children, ages 4 years, 3 years and 1 year. A Funeral for Det. Guarnieri was held on Aril 6, 1914, services were held at the Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Sullivan and Houston Streets. After the church services the remains were taken for burial in Calvary Cemetery, Queens. Thousands of people watched the funeral procession as it passed through the streets of the Lower East Side to the Williamsburg Bridge, it was the largest turn out for a slain police officer since the funeral of Lt. Petrosino, another slain hero in 1909.


For FREE database searches for investigators, go to Black Book Online, found at

Tuesday, April 15, 2003


We have all heard the axiom that a one-witness case will not be prosecuted by the DA's Office.

What this very often comes down to is the need to corroborate your case with additional information to support the facts that the witness is providing, and to support the statement made by your defendant.

Corroboration of the one-witness identification could include such factors as additional witnesses who, although they cannot identify the person who committed the crime, can provide statements that support what the one-witness gives us. For example, the identifying witness states the perp exited a car, walked into the store, and shot the victim. If you can find another person who, even though they cannot identify the shooter, but can verify that a person exited a car, walked into the store, then heard a shot and ran from the store, you no longer have a "one-witness" case.

Corroboration becomes essential in most cases we are involved investigating.

This topic of corroboration, as it relates to a defendants statement, is covered in depth by the John E. Reid & Associates web site on their Monthly Investigators Tip column. Some of the topics they discuss are included here for your review.

It is noted that within the last year numerous inmates have been released from prison and had their convictions overturned as the result of post-trial exculpatory evidence. Many of these individuals confessed to the police. In some cases, the false confession was admitted as evidence. In other cases, the false confession was used as leverage to urge the suspect to accept a plea bargain, resulting in no trial.

Traditionally, courts have afforded greater credibility to an investigator's testimony than that of a defendant anxious to escape punishment. However, because future defense claims of improper interrogation practices may be given more credence, investigators and prosecutors should anticipate greater scrutiny by the courts in admitting confession evidence. The once accepted axiom that no innocent person would confess to a crime has proven to be false. Because of this, the prosecution must demonstrate that a confession is, in fact, trustworthy. The most convincing evidence to demonstrate the truthfulness of a confession is corroboration.

Dependent Corroboration:

At the outset of any investigation, the lead investigator should decide what evidence or information will be withheld from the public and all suspects for the purpose of verifying any subsequence confession. This is called dependent corroboration because the information is dependent upon the crime scene or other investigative source. In theory, only the person guilty of committing the crime should be able to provide this dependent corroboration.

This ability to withhold information becomes increasingly difficult with so many "need-to-know" factors we are faced with. Information provided for dissemination should take this dependent-corroboration into account, as much as we possibly can with the demands placed on us within our own agency. It can become critical down the road; the hard part is not in deciding what to hold back, but in ensuring that it actually is held back.

Independent Corroboration:

The most convincing evidence of a truthful confession is one which contains verifiable information not known until the confession. This is called independent corroboration because the investigator does not know about the evidence until the suspect reveals it, and the evidence is obtained independent from the initial investigation. Independent evidence could include such things as the tool used to gain entry to the victim's bedroom window (tool marks), a witness who could place the suspect near the crime scene (gas station attendant) or a souvenir kept from the victim (bracelet). Investigators tend to be reluctant to seek independent corroboration because they believe that it will only add time to an already lengthy investigation. However, the result of not spending this extra time is the possibility of having a guilty suspect's confession suppressed, or an innocent suspect convicted of a crime he did not commit.

Rational Corroboration:

A rational confession contains unsolicited thoughts and ideas in conjunction with specific behaviors that suggest spontaneous recollection of the crime. While an innocent person, with an active imagination, may be able to provide a rationale confession to someone else's crime, it is unlikely.

The recent media attention focused on innocent persons being found guilty of a crime they did not commit should stimulate efforts by investigators to make certain that confessions obtained during the course of an investigation are, in fact, trustworthy. The best means to accomplish this goal is by corroborating the confession with (1) crime information that was withheld from the suspect, (2) information about the crime not known until the confession or, (3) rational information that reflects spontaneous recollection of the crime.

You can check out the entire article on Corroboration at the John E. Reid web site at:


Why are there green lights outside the entrances to police buildings?

It is believed that the Rattle Watchmen, who patrolled New Amsterdam in the 1650's, carried lanterns at night with green glass sides in them as a means of identification.

When the Watchmen returned to the watch house after patrol, they hung their lantern on a hook by the front door to show people seeking the watchman that he was in the watch house.

Today, green lights are hung outside the entrances of Police Precincts as a symbol that the "Watch" is present and vigilant.


Crime Time is a publishing company which produces resources for investigators. In addition, the web site offers various free web searches for investigators.


That according to the Federal Trade Commission, complaints to the FTC about identity fraud have more than doubled, from 31,113 in 2000 to 85,820 in 2001. For the first six months of 2002, the agency received 70,000 complaints about identity theft.


If you find yourself in Manhattan one afternoon, you may want to consider a stop at The Cigar Inn.

Located on First Avenue between 70 & 71 Streets, it's a well stocked tobacconist as well as haberdasher of fine men's accessories. Shaving needs, men's ties and an array of smoker's accessories, with comfortable seating if you have time to fire-up a cigar and enjoy the ambiance. It's also next door to a nice coffee bar, with outdoor seating if the weather is nice.

Stop by, or check out their web site at:

The Cigar Inn

Note: This web site was under construction when I tried to access it. Perhaps it�s up and running by now.


Here are some actual quotes that are too good to be made up.

"That lowdown scoundrel deserves to be kicked to death by a jackass, and
I'm just the one to do it,"
-- A congressional candidate in Texas.

"If you let that sort of thing go on, your bread and butter will be cut
right out from under your feet,"
-- Former British foreign minister, Ernest Bevin.

"The loss of life will be irreplaceable."
-- Dan Quayle

"Hawaii is a unique state. It is a small state. It is a state that is by
itself. It is different from the other 49 states. Well, all states are
different, but it's got a particularly unique situation."
-- Dan Quayle, VP [they made him swim home after that one]


April 2, 1914 Det Joseph Guarneri, DD, Shot-arrest altercation
April 2, 1930 Ptl Thomas Harnett, 13 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
April 2, 1978 PO Christie Massone and PO Norman Cerullo, 79 Pct, Shot-car stop
April 3, 1953 Ptl John Pendegrass, 32 Pct, Shot-robbery
April 3, 1972 Ptl Phillip Cardillo, 28 Pct, Shot-investigation-Harlem mosque incident
April 4, 1947 Ptl Jack Chason, 79 Pct, Shot-robbery
April 5, 1926 Ptl Charles Reilly, 13 Pct, Shot-arrest, robbery
April 5, 1952 Insp Thomas Boylan, Airplane struck auto
April 6, 1937 Ptl Daniel Sullivan, Mcy Unit, Motorcycle accident
April 6, 1953 Ptl Sam Katz, 32 Pct, Shot-investigation
April 6, 1955 Ptl John Conlon, 28 Pct, Injured on patrol
April 10, 1937 Det Michael Foley, 9 Sqd, Shot-robbery investigation
April 10, 1950 Ptl Louis Bulzano, no info available
April 10, 1960 Ptl Vito Valenzano, 20 Pct, Off duty LOD heart attack
April 12, 1929 Ptl Andrew McLean-Wood, no info available
April 12, 1967 Ptl Joseph Shanahan, Line of duty heart attack
April 13, 1961 Ptl Robert Dugo, 6 Pct, off duty, LOD heart attack
April 13, 1988 PO Anthony McLean, PSA2, Shot-investigation
April 14, 1907 Ptl George Sechler, 16 Pct, Shot-arrest altercation
April 14, 1929 Ptl William Schneller, 32 Pct, Accident-auto pursuit
April 15, 1932 Ptl James Morrissey, Traffic F, Auto accident on patrol
April 15, 1968 Ptl John Banks, ESU, LOD heart attack
April 16, 1907 Ptl Alfred Selleck, 16 Pct, Shot-arrest altercation
April 16, 1955 Ptl Andrew Reynolds, 107 Pct, Motorcycle accident on patrol
April 17, 1925 Ptl Thomas Kelly, 12 Div, Shot-GLA arrest
April 17, 1938 Ptl Humbert Morruzzi, 9 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
April 18, 1936 Ptl Leroy Sheares, 32 Pct, Stabbed by perp
April 19, 1963 Ptl Kenneth Cozier, ESU, LOD heart attack
April 21, 1934 Det James Garvey, 20 Sqd, Shot-investigation

Friday, April 11, 2003


In 1879, Police Captain Alexander "Clubber" Williams was assigned to command the street cleaning department, which was part of the Police Department!

Captain Williams� nickname encapsulates his philosophy of law enforcement. According to Andy Logan, Williams began his career in the late 1860s by cleaning up Broadway and Houston St. He fought a pair of local toughs, beat them unconscious and threw them through the plate-glass window of the Florence Saloon. A half-dozen of their friends charged out the swinging doors. Williams met them alone, club in hand. He was the last man standing.

Captain in 1871, later an Inspector, Williams was brave, efficient, brutal and corrupt.

Witnesses before an 1894 investigation into police graft claimed the Clubber was receiving $30,000 a year in protection money from one brothel alone. When asked to explain his 17-room Connecticut mansion and 53-foot yacht, Williams claimed he had made his fortune through real estate speculation in Japan.


Are you familiar with this term?

In private-investigator circles, you will hear this term used for what we generally refer to as "fugitives".

Let me explain. The "skip" is a person who has skipped out of their last known address to evade financial obligations. The "tracer" is the person who tracks them down.


Here�s an interesting link to a variety of Forensic web sites, put together by the Law Offices of Kim Kruglick. Check them out.

Visit the Home Page of the NYC Police Museum. The Police Museum is located at 100 Old Slip, New York, NY and the phone number is 212-480-3100 .


CIGAR AFICIONADO maintains a very good web site. Among the items they present include a "Counterfeit" cigar section, with excellent tips on how to spot a �counterfeit� Cuban cigar. You know, like most of the ones that are being passed off today as being the "real" thing. Check out the counterfeit site, at:

If you wish, you can log into:
and register as an on-line user for no cost. Pretty interesting information for the cigar smoker, including cigar ratings, restaurant reviews, and a "Cigar 101" for tips on buying, storing, and smoking your favorite cigars.


Common entertainment at one time included playing cards.

However, there was a tax levied when purchasing playing cards but only applicable to the "ace of spades."

To avoid paying the tax, people would purchase 51 cards instead. Yet, since most games require 52 cards, these people were thought to be stupid or dumb because they weren't "playing with a full deck."


Sgt. NORMAN Horowitz, who is returning to the 90 Squad after a stint with the Chief of Department's Office. Norman, who has 37 years experience, is a welcome site back at his home... Brooklyn North! Good to see you back again, NORM!


Although I don�t know how to add actual �Links� on this site, I am listing those sites which I think you�ll find interesting (and would be on a "Links" list if I knew how to do that!). You can utilize "cut & paste" for this purpose, then "bookmark" them for future reference.

REMA: Retired Emergency Man�s Association

National Police Support Network Inc

E-Investigator (Info and people-search links)

Organized Crime information

Tom Natoli�s Transit Police Web Site

NYS Shields

NY Cop Online Magazine

John E. Reid & Associates, Investigative support

Retired Guardian�s, Transit Police and NYPD

NY Transit Police Florida Reunion & Info Site

Phones and other searches: (reverse) (reverse) (reverse)

Cell Phone Carrier

Cigar Afficionado

Manhattanville College Mens Lacrosse

Villanova University Women�s Lacrosse

Tuesday, April 08, 2003


Keep this in mind, when examining a wound that may have been caused by a shotgun.

The "Rule of Sixes" is a method of determining the distance from which a shotgun was fired.

At close range (less than six feet) the wound appears as a central hole. A blast fired from a distance of up to six yards leaves a central hole with satellite entry wounds. Beyond six yards, the wound appears as only a pattern of scattered shot, with no central hole.


If you�ve read anything concerning the history of the NYPD, then the name "Clubber" Williams is sure to have come up.

Alexander Williams has the distinction of being known as "Clubber" for his facility with a nightstick. Alexander Williams has been regarded as the toughest and most corrupt cop in this tough and corrupt era.

"There is more law at the end of the policeman's nightstick than in all the decisions of the Supreme Court," Williams proclaimed. He was forced into retirement by Teddy Roosevelt, when TR was President of the Police Commission, but not before he amassed a large personal fortune, an estate in Cos Cob, Connecticut, and a steam yacht. He is said to have coined the term "the tenderloin" for a rich and corrupt Manhattan district, when he chortled over the prospects for graft in his new command: "I've had nothing but chuck steak for a longtime, and now I'm going to get a little of the tenderloin."

Williams started out in a Brooklyn precinct but found his way to the Broadway squad after only two years. Within two days he was involved in a fight with some local-toughs, and clubbed them, and continued averaging "a fight a day" for the next four years. In 1872 he was made captain of the precinct covering the East Twenties, a partricularly tough area known as the Gashouse. He was transferred to the precinct located at West Twenty-ninth street, in 1876, to an area that was known at that time as Satan's Circus. It was here that Williams made his famous quote to a local reporter that changed the area to being known as the Tenderloin.


This is the report on delays in DNA analysis, prepared by the Attorney General.

Titled "Report to the Attorney General on Delays in Forensic DNA Analysis", it is 20 pages long and can be accessed on-line. It details six recommendations that will serve as the foundation to help reduce the testing of DNA backlog.

You can access the full text, made available by the National Institute of Justice, at: or