Thursday, January 30, 2003

WHAT�S A VIPER?

In case you were wondering what the department�s acronym �VIPER� stands for, it�s:

VIDEO � INTERACTIVE, PATROL ENHANCED RESPONSE

In other words, the CCTV monitoring facility for the housing developments having closed circuit televisions.


FROM THE GLOSSARY OF FORENSIC TERMS


Mitochondrial DNA Testing - in addition to nuclear or chromosomal DNA, each human cell contains the DNA of mitochondria.

Typically, this is a circular molecule of single-stranded DNA consisting of about 50 gene sequences. In each cell, there are thousands of copies of mitochondrial DNA, but only two copies of nuclear DNA or chromosomal DNA.

In cases in which there is not enough nuclear DNA to work with, scientists will instead use the mitochondrial DNA. Once a mitochondrial DNA profile is obtained, it can be compared to samples taken from maternal relatives (mother or siblings) - if they match exactly, an identification can be made.



GHOSTS OF THE PAST�NYPD Station Houses

23rd Precinct

The Former 23rd Precinct station house was located at 177 East 104th Street, between Third and Lexington Avenues.

This station house was built in 1892-3 as a station house for the 28th Precinct. On May 1, 1898, the precinct number changed to the 29th Pct. Once again, on Jan 1, 1908, the precinct number was changed to the 39th Pct. It remained that until July 18, 1924, when it was once again changed to the 13th Pct. It wasn�t until July 3, 1929, that the precinct number was changed to the 23rd Pct.

In November of 1973 the building closed, and the 23rd Pct. moved to new station house at 162 East 102nd Street. In 1974 the building was turned over to a non-profit organization, the �Hope Community Center.� In 1999, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designated the building and site a City Landmark.



MORE FROM THE PAST: 1920 ANNUAL REPORT

It was noted in the 1920 Annual Report for the Department that Patrolmen now go to the 10 squad chart as opposed to the old 9 squad chart. They now get one day off a week as opposed to the old chart, which gave them one day off every 27 days.

It was also noted that Patrolmen were also now authorized one half hour for meal every tour.

The Police Academy was then extended to two months. The school was divided into two branches - physical and mental. The physical training was one hour in the morning with the viewing of line-ups and one hour of the school of the soldier, squad and company - Manual of Arms, United States Army in the afternoon.


PTL. JOSEPH GAFFNEY: NYPD IN MEMORIAM

Jan 11 1916 Ptl. Joseph M. Gaffney, #5280, 10th Inspect. Dist.

Just after the New Year arrived, on January 1st 1916, the sound of shots were heard on Skillman Ave, Brooklyn.

Ptl. Gaffney and two other officers from the 10th District, working in Insp. Butler�s squad, were on patrol and responded and found in front of No. 11 Skillman Ave. Frank Donadio, a junk shop owner celebrating the New Year by firing two revolvers into the air. (Even then!!)

The officers yelled at Donadio to stop but for some reason he instead turned toward them and fired at them. Bullets struck Gaffney in the right side of his chest, the right arm, and the right wrist. Another policeman was shot in his left arm. Mrs. Donadio ran from her house, grabbed her husband�s arm. A bullet struck her in her left arm. Donadio threw down his weapons and ran away. The third police officer chased him and arrested him at Union Ave. Ptl. Gaffney was taken to St. Catherine�s Hospital where he died on Jan. 11, 1916.



WHERE DID NIGHT-STICKS COME FROM?

Police Officers used to carry two kinds of sticks or batons. The first was called a day-stick and was approximately 11 inches long. The second was called a night-stick and was approximately 26 inches long. Both sticks were made of wood, typically oak or mahogany, and had a leather thong or lanyard through the handle so that it could be carried or hung from the officer's hand while on patrol. The night-stick was longer because it afforded extra protection when carried by officers at night. Today, the night stick is carried by officers on all tours.


10-13 APPEAL FOR ASSISTANCE

Sgt. Billy Bright

On June 30, 2002, Sgt. Bright (113 Sqd, formerly SCU and HPD) and his wife were involved in a serious motorcycle accident. Billy lost his right leg among other serious injuries, and spent 5 months in the hospital. Bill�s wife was also seriously injured and both face additional surgical procedures. Your help and support is needed.

There will be a benefit on January 31, 7pm-11pm, at the Southside Firehouse, Oceanside NY (3615 Oceanside Rd). Tickets are $20 each. Perhaps if you can�t make the event, you can purchase a ticket anyway, or make a contribution. Sgt. Gary Lemite of the 79 Squad may be contacted (718-636-6655).


P.O. Peter Ferrero

Peter Ferrero, of the 75 Pct, died tragically on November 25, 2002 while working off-duty to earn extra money for the holidays. Peter is survived by his wife, Leslee, and two children, as well as a baby on the way.

Donations, which will be used to offset mortgage, health insurance and related family and household expenses, can be made to:

The Ferrero Family
C/O Michael Schilling
219 East 81 St, #6H
New York, NY 10028


Monday, January 27, 2003

INVESTIGATOR�S THOUGHTS TO PONDER

From the web site of Diogenes LLC, a full service investigative agency named after the ultimate skeptic, Diogenes. Their motto: �Truth is knowledge, only verified�.

"A man does not look behind the door unless he has stood there himself."

"If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck... it is a bird of some sort."

Benedict Arnold was always the first one to rise when George Washington walked into the room.

"When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."

"Singularity is almost invariably a clue. The more featureless and commonplace a crime is, the more difficult it is to bring it home."

"I have become convinced there is no one truth, nor two; there are often several truths."

"In the war between falsehood and truth, falsehood often wins the first battle, but truth wins the last."


Their web site has an excellent Investigative Resources page. Check it out, and bookmark it; you�ll probably find yourself referring to it often.
http://www.diogenesllc.com/axioms.html



GLOSSARY OF FORENSIC TERMS RELATED TO A DEATH INVESTIGATION

Gross Exam -The part of the autopsy examination done with the naked eye and not the microscope.

Hair Microscopy - In humans, hairs from the head, pubic region, arms, etc., possess characteristics that can determine their origin. Because hairs can be transferred during physical contact (particularly in crimes of violence, such as homicide and sexual assault) their presence can associate a suspect to a victim or a suspect/victim to a crime scene. The examination of human hairs in the forensic laboratory is typically conducted through the use of light microscopy. This examination routinely involves a two-step process�the identification of questioned hairs and the comparison of questioned and known hairs.

Latents - Refers to something invisible to the naked eye, such as finger, palm or footprints.

Locard's Exchange Principle - Whenever two human beings come into contact, something from one is exchanged to the other, ie dust, skin cells, hair etc.

Named for Edmond Locard, b. 1877, who founded the Institute of Lyon�s Institute of Criminalistics. Locard is also known for advancing the science of fingerprints. In 1910 he was authorized to start a small forensic laboratory in the Palais de Justice which he directed until 1951. There he worked on criminal identification methods including poroscopy- the microscopic examination of fingerprints; analyses of body fluids, hair and skin; and graphometry (handwriting analysis).


FROM THE DEPARTMENT�S ANNUAL REPORT OF 1920

In 1920, it was reported in the NYPD�s Annual Report, that:

"Retirement was now authorized after 25 years of service regardless of age. Prior to this a police officer had to be 55 years old." (Made possible under the Laws of 1919).

The Detective Division was placed back under the control of the Chief Inspector, instead of under the control of a Deputy Commissioner. Prior to 1907 it had been under the control of the Chief of Police. Also, it was reported that all detectives were now assigned to precinct detective squads.


GHOSTS FROM THE PAST: NYPD STATION HOUSE HISTORY

THE 15TH PRECINCT

The Former 15th Precinct station house was located at 160 East 35th Street, located between Third and Lexington Avenues.

It was built in 1854 as a dwelling house, and was converted in 1860-61 into a station house for the 21st Precinct.

During the 1863 Draft Riots, rioters looted homes in the upscale Murray Hill area, wounded several policemen and murdered Col. O�Brien of the 11th New York Volunteers in Third Avenue. A number of the arrested rioters were held in the basement cells of the building.

Gaslights were used in the dormitories up to 1951.

On Jan 1, 1908, the precinct designation was changed to the 25th Pct. On July 18, 1924, the precinct number changed once again to the 8A Precinct. Once again, on July 3, 1929, the precinct number changed to 15th Pct.

On July 22, 1964, the 15th Pct. was abolished, and the station house closed.

The building was auctioned off on December 15, 1965. After twenty-two bids the property was sold to Yeshiva University.


COPPERS

On May 23, 1845, a municipal police force of 800 men was established by the Board of Aldermen in New York City.

While the men wore no uniform, they were equipped with a star-shaped copper badge worn on the left breast of their coats.

They soon came to be called the star police and later �coppers� and �cops�.

Anyone visiting Chicago will know that, to this day, the police there are referred to � by civilian and officer alike � as �Coppers�.



�LEST WE FORGET�� The NYPD Memorial

January 25, 1994 PO Nicholas DeMutiis, 106 Pct, Auto check, off duty
January 27, 1908 Ptl John Loughman, 15 Pct, Shot-off duty altercation
January 27, 1938 Ptl Edward Roos, 8 Det Sqd, Auto accident on patrol
January 27, 1943 Ptl Angelo Dimuro, 1 Pct, Line of duty injury
January 27, 1972 Ptl Gregory Foster, 9 Pct, Shot: Assasination
January 27, 1972 Ptl Rocco Laurie, 9 Pct, Shot: Assasination
January 28, 1938 Sgt David Kilpatrick, 40 Pct, Shot-Robbery in progress
January 28, 1980 PO Cecil Sledge, 69 Pct, Shot- auto check
January 30, 1930 Ptl Maurice O�Brien, 28 Pct, Shot-arrest
January 30, 1956 Ptl Benny Bruno, GrandCentralPkwy Pct, Auto accident, pursuit
January 31, 1901 Ptl Thomas Fitzpatrick, 29 Pct, Explosion-Rescue
January 31, 1901 Ptl Edward Mullin, 29 Pct, Explosion-Rescue
January 31, 1927 Ptl James Masterson, 18 Div, Shot-robbery in progress
January 31, 1928 Ptl Patrick Fahey, Traffic C, Horse accident, fall
January 31, 1928 Ptl William Kelly, 37 Pct, Shot-Robbery in progress
January 31, 1931 Ptl Harold Conway, 27 Pct, Drowned, patrol
January 31, 1959 Ptl Michael Talkowsky, 23 Pct, Shot-robbery
January 31, 1968 Ptl Stephen Dell Aquila, Safety B, Scooter accident on patrol
January 31, 1984 PO Angelo Brown, 84 Pct, Shot-robbery, off duty
January 31, 1992 PO Hilario Serrano, 43 Pct, Shot,-robbery, off duty

It is noted that, over the years, ten MOS have been killed in the line of duty on January 31. Other than the losses we experienced on 9-11, this appears to be the month/day with the most MOS killed in the line of duty.

Tuesday, January 21, 2003

The impulse toward perfection is more important than perfection itself�.
Faye Dunaway


GHOSTS OF THE PAST: MORE ON OLD STATION HOUSES

13th PRECINCT

The Former 13th Precinct station house was located at 325 East 22nd Street, located between First and Second Avenues.

It was built in 1862-63 as a station house for the 18th Precinct.

In July 1863, during the Draft Riots, rioters attacked the station house. There was only a Sergeant and a few patrolmen to defend it, and the police were forced to abandon the building to the rioters. The mob broke into the station house, and finding that the police were gone they set fire to the building. After the fire the floors of the building collapsed, leaving only the outside walls intact.

On July 21, 1863, a large number of women and children were in the basement area of the building searching for wood and coal. At about 2.00 pm a violent gale struck New York City. The high winds blew the walls of the station house down. Two boys, one 16 years old, the other 9 years 6 months old were crushed and killed by the falling walls.

In 1864, the station house was rebuilt and reopened in May of 1865.

On Jan 1, 1908, the precinct designation was changed to 21st Pct. It was again changed on July 18, 1924, to the 5th Pct. Once again, on July 3, 1929, the precinct number changed to 13th Pct.

On July 22, 1964, the station house closed, and the 13th Pct. moved into new station house at 230 East 21st Street, as part of the new Police Academy Building.

Following the closing of the East 22nd Street station house, the building was turned over to the Police Athletic League for use as a youth center. Later the PAL left the building and it is now a group home for youths.



A HARLEM HERO: PTL. BENJAMIN WALLACE

On January 6, 1946, Ptl. Benjamin Wallace #12268 of the 32 Pct, suffered mortal wounds in the line of duty.

At about 10.55 pm, Jan. 2, 1946, while on patrol, Wallace entered a tavern at 441 Lenox Ave., Manhattan, to interrogate a known criminal. As Ptl. Wallace approached the criminal suddenly drew a revolver and fired three shots. Although wounded, Ptl. Wallace drew his service revolver, and shot and killed his assailant. Ptl. Wallace was removed to a hospital, where he died on Jan. 8, 1946.

Ptl. Wallace was appointed to the NYPD on July 03, 1938. He was 46 years old and married. On June 3, 1947, at the annual medal day ceremonies Ptl. Wallace was awarded the NYPD Medal of Honor. Mayor William O�Dwyer presented the medal to his widow Mrs. Lucille Wallace.

Appointed to the Police Department July 3, 1928, Benjamin Wallace, 28 years old at the time, was assigned after recruit training to the 32nd Precinct in Harlem.

Within a few years he was a landmark in Harlem, 6foot 5 inches tall and weighing 280 pounds, he was "Big Ben" to his friends and the decent law abiding citizens, but "The Terror" to the criminals of the area.

Patrolman Wallace won his first award in 1931 for arresting a suspicious looking man he had followed into a building basement and saw start an incendiary fire. The prisoner admitted to having started fires in a number of other buildings. For this arrest he received a Commendation award.

His second award was also won in 1931. In an encounter with a man who had shot and killed a woman and wounded a man, Patrolman Wallace killed the perpetrator in an exchange of shots. For this act of bravery he received an award of Honorable Mention.
In 1932 he received a Commendation award for disarming and arresting a man who had shot and fatally wounded a man. In 1940 another Commendation was awarded to Patrolman Wallace for overpowering and disarming a man who had threatened to kill a man. An Excellent Police Duty award was given to Patrolman Wallace in 1941 for subduing and arrested a man who had just committed a robbery. Another Excellent Police Duty award was won in 1941 for locating and arresting a woman who had stabbed and mortally wounded a man. In 1942, Patrolman Wallace was awarded a Commendation award for a shoot-out with five holdup men, he fatally wounded one and arrested the other four. On August 2, 1943, during the Harlem riots, Patrolman Wallace while off duty observed four men committing a burglary. When he attempted to place them under arrest they resisted, and assaulted him. Wallace then shot three of the burglars, two fatally, the fourth one surrendered. For this encounter he was awarded his fourth Commendation.

On the evening of January 2, 1946, Patrolman Wallace was on patrol in the 32nd Precinct with Probationary Patrolman John J. Kennelly. At about 10:55 p.m., the officers entered a bar and grill at 441 Lenox Avenue to investigate a report of a man with a gun. As the officers approached a table at which four men were seated, one later identified as Raymond Griffiths stood up and then drew a .32 caliber revolver from his coat pocket. Without saying anything Griffiths fired three shots at Patrolman Wallace. Two of the shots hit Wallace, one in his abdomen, another hitting his left forearm. As Patrolman Kennelly moved to aid his partner, Wallace drew his revolver and as Griffiths fled to the rear of the bar, fired five shots at him. All five shots hit Griffiths, killing him instantly.

After being rushed to Harlem Hospital, suffering intense pain, he was treated and appeared to be recovering. When visited by Police Commissioner Wallander who offered him a promotion to the rank of Detective, Wallace declined the promotion saying that he preferred to remain in uniform. Six days after being shot Wallace died from his wounds on January 8, 1946. On January 11, 1946 he was given an Inspector�s funeral.

On Medal Day June 3, 1947, Mayor William O'Dwyer present to Mrs. Lucille Wallace, widow of Patrolman Wallace, the Police Department Medal of Honor.




INTERESTING WEB SITES

Check out Jerry Capeci�s �Gangland� for real news on organized crime.
http://www.ganglandnews.com/

Phone Number Listing: Insider Phone Number Contacts for banks, loan companies and credit card companies:
http://www.diogenesllc.com/thephonelist.html


GLOSSARY OF FORENSIC TERMS RELATED TO A DEATH INVESTIGATION


DNA -Deoxyribonucleic acid is the basic unit of genetic information. The examination of DNA is becoming increasingly important to sophisticated criminal and death investigations.

Entomology (Forensic) - The study of insects.

External Examination - The first stage of the autopsy process, this is exactly what it says - an examination by the pathologist of the external surfaces of the body. The body is measured and weighed, and identity is confirmed by checking of the toe tag. Distinguishing external marks and abnormalities of the external body surfaces are noted and described, either by talking into a voice recorder or making notes on a diagram and/or checklist.

Facial Recognition - In 2001, Tampa police became the first in the US to use surveillance cameras (positioned in public areas) and facial recognition software to identify felons as well as runaways and missing persons in public places. The software creates a ''map'' of the face and then identifies 80 distinctive points. To achieve a match, 14 of those points must align with a database picture, often a mugshot.

Fixing - This term refers to the hardening of the brain when it is left in formaldehyde for about 3-4 weeks. This permits slicing of the brain into thin sections for examination for any abnormality that might be present. If the brain is cut fresh, it is soft and doesn't cut as sharply, and abnormalities can be missed.



YOU CAN�T MAKE THIS STUFF UP

In a recent posting, some exceptional quotes heard in a squad room by some linguistic detectives was noted.
Not to be outdone, the following are actual quotes taken from interviews conducted at one time or another.

�My mom has very close veins and she can�t walk up the stairs�.
�The judge gave me an old-tomato� (ultimatum)
�He can�t have any sweets. He�s diabolic�.
�Kidnapping! You can�t arrest me for kidnapping! She�s 21�!
�That�s the best truth I could come up with�.
�I�m no criminal, I�m on parole�.
�He doesn�t drink. He has sore roses of the liver�.
�I was illegally framed�.
�I go to electrocution school�.
�My license was provoked�.
�I wasn�t read my veranda rights�.
�I didn�t get my last rights before they questioned me�.
�I�m psychotic; I can see the future�.
�He�s having an athletic flip�. (epileptic fit)
�He went to the hospital for smoke insulation�.
�We didn�t have intercourse, we were just having sex�.
�I have trouble walking because I have onions on my feet�. (bunions)
�I heard the footprints run up the fire escape�.


LEST WE FORGET�� The NYPD Memorial

January 19, 1922 Ptl Otto Motz, 38 Pct, Shot-prisoner
January 19, 1971 Ptl Gerald Vellota, 18 Pct, Shot-Accidental discharge
January 19, 1985 PO John Clonan, Narc.Div, Auto accident on patrol
January 19, 1998 Det Sean Carrington, Bx. Narco, Shot-Buy/bust arrest
January 20, 1935 Ptl John Hopkins, 14 Pct, Shot-arrest
January 20, 1936 Ptl Daniel Beyer, GrandCentralPkwy Pct, Injured on patrol
January 20, 1975 PO Joseph Garcia, 6 Pct, Shot-robbery
January 21, 1932 Ptl John Walsh, 17 Div, Shot-off duty robbery
January 21, 1941 Ptl Daniel Piselli, 88 Pct, Line of duty injury
January 21, 1948 Ptl William Von Weisenstein, 101 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
January 21, 1958 Det Francis O�Rourke, 32 Sqd, Line of duty heart attack
January 21, 1986 Det Anthony Venditti, OCCB, Shot-investigation
January 21, 1995 Det Alfred Boesch, SNEU Housing, line of duty injury
January 22, 1971 Ptl Robert Bolden, 75 Pct, Shot-off duty altercation
January 23, 1934 Ptl Joseph Misichia, 114 Pct, Shot-arrest
January 23, 1943 Ptl Christopher Hughes, 17 Pct, Shot-arrest
January 23, 1943 Ptl Pasquale Venturelli, 45 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
January 23, 1987 PO Michael Reidy, 41 Pct, Shot-off duty robbery
January 24, 1967 Ptl John Barry, PA, Line of duty heart attack
January 24, 1975 Ptl John Scala, Applic.Invest, Shot-off duty robbery



REMEMBER� TO CONTACT THE MINISTER OF INVESTIGATION, SEND E-MAIL TO:
Ltjac77@yahoo.com



Friday, January 17, 2003

�Luck is where opportunity meets preparation or preparation meets opportunity�.
Richard Petty


ROGUES GALLERY

The photographing of criminals was started in New York City by the Metropolitan Police Department in Nov. of 1857. By June 1858, there were 700 photographs in the �Rogues Portrait Gallery�.

It was not until Inspector Thomas Byrnes became the Chief of Detectives that the �Rogue�s Gallery� was built up and used for the identification of habitual criminals. During Byrnes tenure as Chief of Detectives the portrait gallery contained several thousands of photographs of criminals who had been arrested in New York City and in most of the other large cities in the United States.

In 1886, Byrnes published a book �Professional Criminals of America,� and contained in the book were almost 400 photographs, biographical sketches and the modus operandi of each criminal.

At first, prisoners were taken to a private photographer to be photographed. In the 1890s they were taken from Headquarters, 300 Mulberry Street, to Cole�s (Photograph) Studio at the south/west corner of 3rd Street & 2nd Avenue. Following the adoption by the Department of the Bertillon system of criminal identification, which required both a front- face and profile view, a Photograph Gallery was set up on the top floor of Police Headquarters. Although in 1906 the Bertillon system of identification was discontinued after the Department began using the fingerprint system, the taking of photographs was continued.

During his term (1909-1913) as Mayor, William Gaynor, ordered the discontinuance of the daily line-up and the destruction of most of the photographs that had been taken of criminals. It was not until 1915 that the �Rogues� Gallery� was built back up and re-established with 10,000 photographs of criminal out of jail. Inspector Faurot, the first person in the NYPD to learn the fingerprint system, had completed the task of rebuilding the �Rogues� Gallery� with the aid of Lt. James Allen who had been a long-term assistant to Inspector Byrnes.

It is noted that while original copies of �Professional Criminals of America� are rare and expensive, anyone interested in obtaining a copy of Byrnes book can obtain a reprint edition of it, published in 1969, from used booksellers. If interested, you can try bookfinders.com or abebooks.com.


SPRINT RETRIEVAL: JOBS OVER 24 HOURS OLD

Just in case you missed this, here�s how to retrieve a SPRINT job that is over 24 hours old.

1. Determine the SPRINT Job #. You can do this by first checking in SPIA.
2. Log in to SPRINT. Once properly logged in, then
3. Enter the Job number and request as follows:

IZ/J:job#/Date/T

Date of Incident entered as follows (March 12, 2002 as an example):

a. Day of the Month as a 2-digit entry: 12
b. Month is a 3-letter entry: MAR
c. Year is a 2-digit entry: 01

Example: JOB# M01831 of March 12, 2002 is entered as follows:

IZ/J:M01831/12MAR02/T

This will then display the SPRINT job for the appropriate incident.



DET JOHN KRANZ

On January 2, 1932, Det.John Kranz #10964 of the 4th Det. Sqd. (1st Det. Sqd.), died from injuries sustained in the line of duty.

On Dec. 29, 1931, while taking a suspect to the 19th Pct. S.H., and riding in a taxicab, at 68th St. & Lexington Ave, he was shot with his own gun after an argument with the suspect, Fred Galvin.

Galvin admitted to the shooting and was later held on a charge of homicide. Det. Kranz was removed to Lenox Hill Hospital, where after receiving two blood transfusions. He died on Jan. 2, 1932.

Det. Kranz was appointed to the NYPD on Oct. 13, 1922. In 1926 he was made a third-grade detective and in 1931 promoted to second grade detective. He was born on May 25, 1900, was married and had a four-year-old daughter. A funeral service was held on Jan. 6, 1932, with burial in Woodlawn Cemetery.

While Kranz is listed on the Roll of Honor as a Patrolman, records which Ret. Det.1 John Reilly have indicate that Kranz was a Detective. In either event, he was working out of the 4th Det Squad at the time.


GHOSTS OF THE PAST: OLD STATION HOUSES

Thanks to noted NYPD historian, Ret. Det 1 John Reilly, here are some interesting trivia regarding NYPD Station Houses.

12th PRECINCT:

At one time there was a 12th Precinct, and its station house was at 205 Mulberry Street, between Broome and Spring Streets.

It was built in 1871 as a station house for the 14th Precinct. Next door to this building, at 203 Mulberry Street, was the House of Detention for Witnesses.

Up until 1915 the police department maintained a House of Detention for Material Witnesses!

On May 1, 1898, the precinct designation changed from the 14th to the 11th Precinct. It remained that way until January 1, 1908, when the precinct designation changed to the 12th Precinct.

On December 1, 1916, the precinct was abolished and the station house closed.

From 1916 to 1919, the two buildings � the precinct and the House of Detention � were used as a storehouse. In 1919 the main office of the Police Home Service Fund was established at 205 Mulberry Street. This fund was a means of supplying police families with clothing and foodstuffs at reduced cost. On March 2, 1923, the Home Service Fund was closed down.

At some point after 1923 the NYPD Buildings and Maintenance Section took over the building as workshops and for the storage of building supplies.


GLOSSARY OF FORENSIC TERMS RELATED TO A DEATH INVESTIGATION

Anthropology (Forensic) - generally speaking, the forensic anthropologist is a skeletal biologist who applies what is known about human skeletal variation to the individual case by developing a profile (age, sex, ancestry, stature) that may lead to a positive identification.

Blood Spatter - A wound that causes blood to flow provides Forensic scientists trained in the properties of blood and in analysis of its behavior with important information. For instance, from the diameter, shape and pattern of blood spatter, the position of the victim, and sometimes of the weapon or person wielding the weapon, can be determined.

Cold Hit -The matching of physical evidence from a crime scene to a sample from a database of DNA collected from convicted felons results in a "cold hit."

Diener - (from the German for servant) - A morgue employee who is an assistant to the autopsy process.


�LEST WE FORGET�� The NYPD Memorial

January 11, 1908 Ptl Robert Fitzgerald, Bridge Pct, Drowned-Rescue
January 11, 1916 Ptl Joseph Gaffney, 26 Pct, Shot-Arrest
January 11, 1929 Ptl Albert Bruden, Mcy Unit, Auto pursuit
January 11, 1941 Ptl Edward Maher, Traffic P, Shot-Robbery
January 12, 1974 PO Timothy Murphy, 120 Pct, Shot-off duty, mistaken ID
January 12, 1981 PO Robert Walsh, 7 Pct, Shot-Robbery, off duty
January 13, 1924 Ptl John Schneider, 3 Div, Shot-robbery investigation
January 13, 1950 Ptl Edward Carraher, 14 Pct, Injured on patrol
January 13, 1997 Det Kenny Fung, 72 Sqd, Hear attack during investigation
January 15, 1938 Ptl Frank Zaccor, 14 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
January 16, 1953 Ptl Thomas Sheehan, 10 Pct, Line of duty heart attack
January 17, 1947 Ptl Harry Schriffies, Mcy Dist, Shot-investigation
January 18, 1935 Ptl James Killion, 17 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
January 18, 1960 Sgt Edward Johnson, 5 Pct, Stabbed by EDP
January 18, 1967 Det Harold Jacob, Safe,Loft&Burg, LOD Heart attack
January 18, 1979 PO Robert Manzione, 7 Pct, Line of duty heart attack

Tuesday, January 14, 2003

FROM THE MEDICAL EXAMINER:

COMPRESSION OF THE NECK: PETECHIAL HEMORRHAGES

Petechial hemorrhages are capillaries that have ruptured because of pressure.

If pressure is put on the neck, the blood backs up and the capillaries, which are the weakest part of the vascular system, rupture.

It takes 60-70 lbs. of pressure to collapse an artery, but only 5 lbs to collapse a vein.

In suffocation, the pressure is primarily on the nose and mouth, not on the neck and usually you do NOT see PETECHIAE. However, when a person struggles this often inadvertently leads to pressure on the neck as well.

Suffocation is a much more rare cause of death than strangulation; there is most often that struggle leading to the pressure on the neck.


INTERESTING WEB SITES

Need to synchronize your watches? Check out the exact time at the Naval Observatory site:
http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/cgi-bin/timer.pl

What does that acronym stand for? Check it out at the �Acronym Database�.
http://www.ucc.ie/info/net/acronyms/index.html


THE GUNMEN SQUAD

During 1929, there were 21 heavy armored motorcycles with bulletproof windshields. Fifteen had sidecars of which six were kept for the disposal of the "Gunmen's Squad."

According to the NYPD's annual report of 1929, the "Gunmen's Squad" was composed of a number of men from each borough for the purpose of driving loafers, criminals, gangsters and disorderly characters from the streets, speakeasies, pool parlors and dance halls. it was reported that they kept 198 known gangsters on the run and "axed "every illegal "still" they found.

Was this the first "Operation Impact"?



ORIGIN OF SCOTLAND YARD

The Metropolitan Police, headquartered in London, England, is better known as �Scotland Yard�. How did this force get its name?

The task of organizing and designing the "New Police", as the Metropolitan force was known, was placed in the hands of Colonel Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne, two of the department�s Commissioners.

They occupied a private house at 4 Whitehall Place, the back of which opened on to a courtyard. The back premises of 4 Whitehall Place were used as a police station. It was this address that led to the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police being known as Scotland Yard.

The exact origin of the name is not clear, and several stories abound. The following two stories have both gained credence at various times.

It is said the location had been the site of a residence owned by the Kings of Scotland before the Union and used and occupied by them and/or their ambassadors when in London, and known as '"Scotland". The courtyard was later used by Sir Christopher Wren and known as "Scotland Yard".

Number 4 Whitehall Place backed onto a court called Great Scotland Yard, one of three streets incorporating the words "Scotland Yard" in its name. The street names are said to have derived from the land being owned by a man called Scott during the Middle Ages.

By 1887 the Police HQ embraced numbers 3, 4, 5, 21 and 22 Whitehall Place, numbers 8 and 9 Great Scotland Yard, numbers 1, 2 and 3 Palace Place and various stables and outbuildings as well as a freestanding building in the centre of the Yard that had successively held stores, the Public Carriage Office and the Criminal Investigation Division offices.

These headquarters were removed in 1890 to premises on the Victoria Embankment and became known as "New Scotland Yard". In 1967, because of the need for a larger and more modern headquarters, a further move took place to the present site at Broadway in the S.W.1 district of London. This is now also known as "New Scotland Yard".


YOU CAN�T MAKE THIS STUFF UP

These are ACTUAL statements overheard in a squad room by one or another detective (to remain nameless). Keep in mind that these are not made up; they are real. We had a name for them, as both of the quotable-snoops had the same first name. Let�s just leave it at that for now.

�Stop beating a horse with a dead stick�

�You�re burning the oil at both ends�

�If you don�t like the smell of Ben-Gay, try using the senseless kind�

�I got a mind brain headache (migraine headache)�

�He�s like a bull in a china closet�

�Behind every cloud is a silver platter�

�Go through everything with a fine toothbrush�

�Too many fires on the iron�

�We�re all making some shingles� (shekels)

�Let�s shake some feathers, or ruffle the trees�

�What time was the pronunciation�

�He�s in a seduced coma� (induced)

�He can�t be interviewed yet. He�s incubated�.

�My wife was at one of those lingeray parties�

�The 911 call was made unanimously�.


Friday, January 10, 2003

�IT�S A VOCATION�: LT. MIKE MONTEMARANO

So says Lt. Mike Montemarano, the department�s most senior cop, who is retiring today � January 10. Monte has 41 years, three months and two days of service!

In an article by Alice McQuillan in Thursday�s Daily News (in which he is referred to as "Frank" ) it is noted that Montemarano joined the department before two-way radios, before 911, and during a time when you were �pretty much on your own� when it came to summoning backup.

Montemarano, a Brooklyn North native, spent 20 years on patrol, mostly in Brooklyn, then began his second career spending most of the next twenty years in Brooklyn North Narcotics. He most recently, since 1997, has been assigned to the Investigative Support Division of OCCB. Monte, as he is known, is the son of an 89-year-old retired detective.

�There�s a word called vocation; I saw police work as a life�s work� said Montemarano.

Monte is looking forward to another career helping others as a counselor at his church.

And Paddy Boyle moves up another notch in job seniority!

From your brothers and sister in Brooklyn North Detectives, we wish you all the best!



JACK THE RIPPER CASE CLOSED

A newly published book by the noted best-selling crime writer, Patricia Cornwell, purports to close the door on the �Jack the Ripper� case and reveal the serial killer.

Patricia Cornwell is the creator of the internationally acclaimed series of crime novels featuring the character Dr. Kay Scarpetta as the Virginia Chief Medical Examiner. Taking a real-life page from television�s �Murder She Wrote�, this mystery writer examined, investigated, and paid for (on her own) forensic research to be conducted on pieces of evidence from these 1888 serial murders, which helped to identify the killer as the world-famous artist Walter Sickert.

Her investigation is chronicled in the book �PORTRAIT OF A KILLER: JACK THE RIPPER CASE CLOSED�, which has just recently been published � and acquired by The Minister.

Between August and November 1888, at least seven women were murdered in London�s Whitechapel area. �The gruesome nature of their deaths caused panic and fear in the East End for months, and gave rise to the sobriquet that was to become shorthand for a serial killer � Jack the Ripper�.

Cornwell applied �the rigorous discipline of twenty-first-century police investigation to the extant material�, and presents the hard evidence that the killer was Walter Sickert.

Patricia Cornwell believes that a good crime novelist must know about real-life criminal investigative techniques. Her drive has led to her interest in forensic science beyond the novice level. Cornwell, it is noted, has helped to establish the Virginia Institute of Forensic Science and Medicine, and serves as its Chairman of the Board.

If you have the opportunity, I recommend you take a look at this book, and how modern investigative methods have been applied to some �very� cold cases. Check out their web sites, as well.


INTERESTING WEB SITE

The Virginia Institute of Forensic Science and Medicine has an interesting web site, including a forensic glossary page. Check out the site at:
http://www.vifsm.org

Patricia Cornwell�s Website can be found at:

www.patriciacornwell.com



PTL. FRANK ZACCOR: HERO PATROLMAN

It was pointed out to me that the previous posting of the NYPD MEMORIAL omitted an MOS who was killed in the line of duty.

On Jan 06 1938, Ptl. Frank E. Zaccor #10047 of the 14th Precinct (Midtown South) was killed in the line of duty.

Shortly after 1.00 a.m. on Jan. 6, 1938, three men, two armed with revolvers, walked into McElroy�s Bar & Grill at 30 West 31st Street, Manhattan. One shouted, �This is a stick-up! Everyone line up and march to the rear! We mean business!� As the customers started to obey, Ptl. Zaccor who was on patrol looked through the front window as he passed by and saw one of the men rifling the cash register behind the bar.

Ptl Zaccor then opened the bar room door, surveyed the scene, and with his revolver drawn told the stick-up men to drop their guns. Immediately one of the men fired at the officer hitting him in the abdomen. As Zaccor lay on the floor he managed to fire one shot, which mortally wounded one of the bandits who died a few days later. Before an ambulance arrived from Bellevue Hospital the officer was dead.

Ptl. Zaccor was appointed to the NYPD on Mar. 26, 1924. He was 39 years old, married with two children. The funeral service for Frank Zaccor, which was attended by Mayor LaGuardia, Police Commissioner Valentine and many others, was held on Jan. 10, 1938 at St. Clement�s R.C. Church, Jamaica. Burial was in St. John�s Cemetery, Queens. On June 1st 1939, Mayor LaGuardia presented to Mrs. Marie Zaccor, the widow of Ptl. Zaccor, the NYPD Medal of Honor that was posthumously awarded to the slain officer.



LAPD �LADIES IN BLUE� CALENDAR AVAILABLE

The LAPD has published its �Ladies in Blue�� 2003 calendar, which pays homage to the legacy of the female Police Officer.

Packed with over 50 historical photographs, the calendar highlights these pioneering women through photographs and written descriptions, giving insight to the sacrifices and motivations of the first female Los Angeles police officers.

The calendar is �a tribute to the women who initiated, endured, and fought for the rights and roles available to women working in law enforcement today�.

This calendar is available through Amazon.com and through the www.ladiesinblue.com website. The price is $14 for each calendar, and additional shipping charges and taxes will apply. The calendars are also available at the Los Angeles Police Historical Museum, 6045 York Blvd. in Highland Park, or by calling (323) 344-9445. A portion of the calendar�s proceeds will benefit the Los Angeles Police Historical Society.



25 PRECINCT: THE BROADWAY SQUAD

The 25 Precinct has been identified on these pages previously as the identifier for the Detective Force.

However, during the Civil War Draft Riots in 1863, the 25 Precinct was not the �Detective Force� but the �Broadway Squad�.

This command at that time was supposedly the best looking, fittest, brightest and most elite police officers over 6 feet tall that the city could find. Normally used only to patrol Broadway, it was designated to fly from problem location to problem location as police conditions warranted. Today, it would probably be designated as a Boro Task Force.

It was something along the line of the �Tactical Patrol Force� of the 1960�s and 70�s.



ON THE MOVE

Some former NYPD brass are earning their frequent-flyer miles.

I�m sure everyone has heard the Bill Bratton has taken over the LAPD, bringing his east-coast style of policing to the City of Angels.

John Timoney has taken over the reigns of the Miami Police Department. Timoney was the Philadelphia PC until the beginning of 2002, when he returned to New York as the CEO of Bo Dietl and Associates. By the way, Bo, a one-time Brooklyn North detective in the 75 Squad, has a major security-investigation firm and can be seen and heard every week on the Imus show. (He also has a regular table at Rao�s, but more on that another time).

Also moving to new quarters is Ed Norris. Norris has left the Baltimore PD to take over the Maryland State Police.

Best wishes to all in their new assignments!


J-E-T-S- : JETS, JETS, JETS !!!!!

Go Gang-Green! Let's see them topple Oakland on Sunday!

Monday, January 06, 2003

ESTIMATING TIME OF DEATH

Estimating time of death (TOD) is a difficult task, and is at best reliable to within four (4) hours. Some factors which you should be aware of follows.

After death, the body starts to cool down to whatever the outside (or room) temperature is.

At death, the body starts to drop from it's normal 98.6 degrees by a factor of 3 degrees the first hour and a factor of 1 degree each subsequent hour. Then, after 30 hours, it starts to go up again because of the heat generated by decomposition (but this varies by room or outside temperature, so you need to know weather conditions).

Rigor mortis is also something you should know about. The body is limp until about 5-6 hours after death, then a hardness begins to set in around the jaw area in front of the ear (temporal mandibular joint area). It then spreads throughout the body for a period of time, and then the body goes limp again. The following chart illustrates:

stiffness in jaw -- 6 hours after death

stiffness in upper torso -- 12 hours after death

stiffness in whole body -- 18 hours after death

limpness returns to body -- 36 hours after death

Lividity is the effect of gravity on blood. You'll note that after death, all the loose blood in the body runs down to the lowest point of gravity. If the dead person is on their back, you'll notice these blueish-purple stains on their back.

Lividity begins after only 3 hours, and the blood becomes dried after only 12 hours, so lividity is something to look for quick. It tells you if the body has been moved or transported when there are lividity marks in unusual places instead of the lowest point of gravity where you find the body.

You can distinguish lividity from a bruise by pressing down on the skin area. Since with lividity, the blood is still in the blood vessels, when you press down on the skin, the skin changes color and turns white (or whatever skin color the person normally has) again. Bruises, by definition, are broken blood vessels, so when you press down on the skin area for them, you won't notice any color change; the skin area will just turn another shade of blueish-green.

The eyes dilate 7 hours after death (dilation is an enlargement of the black pupil area). After 12 hours, the whole eye gets cloudy and fish-like. If the person is disemboweled or has thrown up, look at the stomach contents. Anything eaten in the last 2 hours is undigested; 6 hours in the small intestine, and 12 hours in the large intestine.

If your victim has been underwater, the average dead person sinks for about 8-10 days (depending on body weight), then they become "floaters" on about the 11th day (although a light person might float after only 7 days).

Decomposition begins in 30 hours and then starts to rise rapidly after 48 hours. The soapy, mushy remains of a body indicate they've been dead for 3 months. If they are partially mummified, they've been dead for a year. Decomposition is unmistakable by it's smell (the smell of death). You'll be able to see the gases coming out of small gas blisters all over the body, and you won't be able to overlook the bloated greenish tint that the whole body has. If it's an outdoor crime scene, chances are that small animals have eaten or carried off parts of the body.


GHOSTS OF THE PAST: OLD STATION HOUSES

8th Precinct:
At one time there was an 8th Precinct, and the station house was located at 19 Leonard Street, between Hudson St and West Broadway.

This station house was built in 1868 as a dwelling, and was remodeled into a station house and occupied by the 5th Precinct in 1869.

It was changed to the 8th Precinct on May 1, 1898. The 8th Precinct was abolished and the building was closed on December 1, 1913.

The city sold the building, which was used as a furniture warehouse until the mid-1990�s, when the building was converted into a condominium apartment house.

10th Precinct:
The �old� 10th Precinct station house was located at 24 MacDougal Street, between Van Dam and Prince Streets. The address of the building was later changed to 194 Avenue of the Americas.

This building was built in 1893-94 as a station house for the 8th Precinct, and was originally occupied as such on May 7, 1894.

On May 1, 1898 the precinct designation was changed to the 10th Precinct. It remained as such until January 1, 1920 was the precinct was abolished and closed. The Department continued to use the building as the Quartermaster�s Storehouse. It was later sold by the city, and was converted into � guess what? � a condominium apartment house.


NYPD: 1901 STYLE

The department was headed by one Commissioner of Police. Under him were two Deputy Commissioners.

The city was divided, for police purposes, into five boroughs under the command of a Deputy Chief. Manhattan and Richmond were combined into one borough command.

There were 11 inspection districts, under the command of an inspector, and further divided into 81 precincts, with a Captain in command of each of those.

The Detective Bureau and the Branch Detective Bureau of the Borough of Brooklyn were each commanded by captains, with the squads under them each commanded by a Sergeant.

The Department owned 384 horses, 212 of which were used for patrol service and the remainder in patrol wagons, of which there were 62.

The department consisted of 7,241 men. Of this, 174 were doormen, 6,175 patrolmen, 328 roundsmen, 361 sergeants, 106 detective sergeants, 83 captains, 10 inspectors, and 5 deputy chiefs.


GIVING CREDIT�

The Hostage Negotiation Team of NYPD is approaching its 30th Anniversary on January 19th, as it has been noted in prior postings to this site.

Frank Bolz, Retired Captain (and Lieutenant at the time of HNT�s creation) is known by many for his role in establishing many of the policies and practices of HNT as its first C.O.

It was Assistant Chief Inspector Simon Eisdorfer who is credited as having conceived the NYPD�s hostage program.

D.I. Arthur Freeman brought the people together, introducing Frank Bolz to Dr. Harvey Schlossberg, Ph.D., who was then a Detective and used his new psychological training to develop the techniques that were put in place.

Don�t forget to look for the Court TV special on the Hostage Negotiation Team that will air on January 16 at 8 PM. �Talk to Me��


�LEST WE FORGET��

Two Detectives Killed in Line of Duty: 1922

Jan 05 1922: Acting Det. Sgt. William A.Miller #120, 38th Sqd (32nd Det. Sqd)
Jan 06 1922: Acting Det. Sgt. Francis M. Buckley #612, 38th Sqd (32nd Det. Sqd)


These detectives had just arrested a notorious criminal, Luther Boddy, who was wanted on suspicion of shooting a police officer. They apprehended him when he reported to his probation officer in a public school at Lenox Ave. and 135th Street.

While they were taking him to the station house, he slipped from their grip, drew a revolver, then shot and mortally wounded both detectives and escaped.

Boddy was caught later in Philadelphia. He was returned to New York, was convicted of the crime of murder and put to death in the electric chair at Sing Sing Prison.


The NYPD Memorial:

January 2, 1932 Ptl John Kranz, Det Sqd, Shot
January 3, 1975 PO Michael McConnon, 13 Pct, Shot-Robbery
January 3, 1978 PO Ronald Stapleton, 77 Pct, Shot-Off duty
January 5, 1922 Det William Miller, 38 Sq (32 Sq), Shot-Arrest
January 5, 1922 Det Francis Buckley, DetDiv, Shot-Arrest
January 5, 1944 Ptl Patrick Malone, Traffic I, Auto accident on patrol
January 7, 1930 Ptl Paul Schafer, 19 Pct, Motorcycle accident
January 7, 1933 Ptl Walter Murphy, 14 Div, Shot-off duty pursuit
January 7, 1934 Ptl Ernest McCarron, 68 Pct, Fire rescue
January 8, 1946 Ptl Benjamin Wallace, 32 Pct, Shot-investigation
January 9, 1938 Ptl Anthony Tornatore, 52 Pct, Shot-investigation
January 9, 1973 Ptl Stephen Gilroy, ESS8, Shot-robbery, hostage situation
January 10, 1987 PO Francis LaSala, ESS1, Fire rescue