Monday, December 30, 2002


Did you known that at one time there was a "Women's Precinct?"

In January of 1921, Police Commissioner Enright abolished the 22nd (Hell's Kitchen) Precinct and closed the station house at 434 West 37th Street, Manhattan.

On May 3, 1921, the West 37th Street station house was reopened as the "Women's Precinct." It was to be used as a center for the welfare work of the Policewomen's Bureau.

On opening day, May 3rd, all the windows of the S.H. had white curtains. Also flower boxes were on the window ledges. The former sitting room in the back was now the reception room and had a Persian rug on the floor.

The "Women's Precinct" did not last long and was closed within a year.


In my prior posting I inadvertently referred to FRANK BOLZ as the �Originator� of Hostage Negotiations in NYPD.

Frank Bolz, then a Lieutenant, was the first Commanding Officer of HNT, and was �one of� the originators of the Hostage Negotiation Team, but NOT the sole originator.

We don�t want anyone to feel slighted by this.


Holiday promotions saw some happy faces in the Brooklyn North family.

Congratulations to Larry Samodulski, of the 90 Sqd, who was promoted to DETECTIVE FIRST GRADE.

Detective Second Grade promotions were extended to George Miller of the 81 Sqd and to Jose Hernandez of the 90 Sqd.

A very hearty congratulations go out to JOE HERBERT, who was promoted to Captain of Police. Joe, we know your heart is here in Brooklyn North! Just know that we feel reassured knowing you are keeping us all safe in the Terrorist TF. Best wishes, Joe!!

Promoted to Sergeant was John O�Keefe of the 73 Squad.

Our �extended� Brooklyn North family saw some promotions as well. Bob Richard, now the CO of the 70 Pct, was promoted to Inspector. Bob was the former Operations Commander and Borough Adjutant in Brooklyn North. Also promoted to Inspector was Roger Peterson, another former BN Precinct CO who is now the PBSI Counter-Terrorism Coordinator. Carlos Gomez, currently at MISD, was also �upped� to Inspector. He, too, was a precinct CO in Brooklyn North at one time.


Thanks to noted NYPD historian, Ret. Det 1 John Reilly, here are some interesting trivia regarding NYPD Station Houses.

The �old� 6th Precinct station house, which was located at 135 Charles Street, between Greenwich and Washington Streets, was closed when the new station house was built at its current site, 233 West 10th Street. That was on January 13, 1971.

The 6th Precinct station house was originally built in 1897-98, to house what was then the 9th Precinct. It opened on March 8, 1898.

On January 1, 1908 it was re-designated the 14th Precinct. It remained as such until July 18, 1924, when it was re-designated the 5th Precinct. It wasn�t until July 3, 1929 that it was changed once again to its 6th Precinct designation.

When the building was closed upon the move to West 10th Street, it was sold by the city to a developer who converted it into a condominium apartment house.


The NADDIS System is the Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Intelligence System.

NADDIS is a federal system maintained by the DEA.

The system contains complete information on a subject, and reference to telephone/cellular phones, pager numbers etc. that may have arisen during previous investigations.

It also lists known associates, areas of operation, vehicle information, and other investigation information.

This system can be very useful to detectives, as it can identify and cross-reference subjects and associates. It can identify subjects that are possibly wanted for other crimes, and can help investigators obtain information on other investigators/agencies that may have conducted an investigation on the subject.

The information compiled in NADDIS is is obtained from around the world by the Drug Enforcement Task Force.

Prior to accessing NADDIS, you should first query all other NYPD information systems (CARS, BADS, CRIMS, etc).


December 30, 1968 Det Clifton Eastby, DetDiv, LOD Heart attack
December 31, 1929 Ptl George Grossberger, 108 Pct, Assaulted by irate prisoner
December 31, 1939 Ptl Thomas Burns, 74 Pct, Drowned


Please remember: The SURVIVORS OF THE SHIELD:
PO Box 10017
Staten Island, NY 10310

Monday, December 23, 2002


Double-blind lineups. Get used to them.

The December 23 edition of the DAILY NEWS reveals that Brooklyn DA Charles Hynes has become the first local prosecutor to endorse the use of double-blind lineups to help identify crime suspects.

Hynes stated that beginning January 1 his office will use this procedure when drafting any lineup order.

A double-blind lineup is one in which the detective conducting the lineup, as well as the person viewing the lineup, do not know who the real suspect is.

When conducting a double-blind lineup, the fillers are placed in the lineup room, and the lineup is established by the case detective or a detective from that squad. When the lineup is ready to be conducted another detective � from another squad � enters the lineup viewing room along with the complainant, and conducts the actual lineup viewing and identification process. Accordingly, the supervisor conducting the lineup should also be from a different command and one who does not know the real suspect.

Hynes indicated he was endorsing this procedure, which has been long favorded by defense attorneys, because he was �troubled by the number of wrongful convictions in Brooklyn in recent years�.

�With the double-blind lineup, neither the witness nor the person conducting the lineup knows who the suspect is, greatly reducing any chance of influence�.

It would appear that the prosecutors office is in agreement with defense advocates, who charge that �detectives familiar with a suspect may-even unconsciously- make comments or gestures that encourage witnesses to pick out a particular suspect�. I guess the presence of a detective supervisor is of no consequence to these advocates either.

Advocates of the new procedure indicate that �it is to make it more likely that police catch the real bad guy�.


The 30th Anniversary of the NYPD�s Hostage Recovery Program will be celebrated on January 19, 2003. This date marks the first time that a �Hostage Recovery� program was put into action by the NYPD.

The originator of the Hostage Recovery/Negotiation Program, Ret. Capt. Frank Bolz, notes this historic fete in a recent e-mail to The Minister.

It was a botched robbery attempt by four gunmen at John and Al's Gun Shop, located in the 90 Precinct in Williamsburg, Brooklyn that was the scene of the first such hostage recovery incident.

During this botched robbery, Ptl Stephen Gilroy would be killed, and Ptl Jose Adorno and Ptl Frank Carpenter would be wounded. After the initial exchange of gunfire, not a single shot would be fired by the elite Emergency Service Unit.

The siege would last for 47 hours. At that time the hostages would be able to escape to the waiting arms of the ESU cops on the roof top of the building.

In April of 1973 the NYPD would graduate the first class of trained hostage negotiators and the DBHNT ( Detective Bureau Hostage Negotiating Team ) was officially formed.

Since that time its hostage procedures have been shared with other law enforcement agencies through out the world. Even the FBI credits us with the origin of the program.

The first four-week training program was designed by Frank Bolz, who was a Lieutenant at that time, along with famed Det (Dr.) Harvey Schlossberg, the NYPD Psychologist. The first class of Hostage Negotiators graduated 30 detectives.

Mark your calendars and watch out for the Court TV documentary on Hostage Negotiations, to be aired on Jan 16th, 2003 at 8:00PM.

Do you recall what two uniform items Frank Bolz was responsible for introducing to the department?


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Includes "Scam Alerts'" Links, articles, etc.


What is known today as the Missing Persons Squad began, in 1867, as the Bureau for the Recovery of Lost Persons. It was also later known as the Bureau of Inquiry for Missing People. This was one of the only specialized detective squads when the Detective Bureau was first formed.

It had two officers, one sergeant and one Roundsman. It was in the same room as the Chief Clerk, 300 Mulberry St. In 1885, about 600 people were reported missing every year in the city at that time. About 2/3 of them returned home, or were accounted for in some other manner, i.e. found dead by their own hand or have drown, etc. Some just leave their families because of domestic or family problems, financial difficulties or mental illness.

The procedures in place at that time stated that when a person is reported missing, the name and general description of the missing is telegraphed to Police Headquarters, the �Superintendent of the Morgue� and a number of adjoining police stations. This is known as a �General Alarm�. Records of arrests, and hospitals admissions are checked and the missing�s information is giving to the press reporters stationed at Police Headquarters.

If it is deemed of sufficient importance it is then given to the headquarters detectives and a written memorandum is made monthly with the information and is sent to the Captains of all the precincts.


Regular readers to this column will recall that FRANK BOLZ, when he was the Lt.-C.O. of the Hostage Negotiation Team (he was the originator) introduced the nylon windbreaker and baseball cap to the NYPD cadre of uniforms.

Mrs. Bolz sewed an NYPD patch on the front of the windbreaker, and another on a baseball cap, and so was born the HNT "Field Uniform", soon to be copied by all plainclothes commands for use when recognition was desirable.


December 22, 1927 Lt Charles Kemmer, 54 Pct, Shot-burglary arrest
December 22, 1940 Ptl Joseph Kussius, GCP Pct, Motorcycle accident
December 22, 1977 PO William Flood, PBQ, Shot-Robbery, off duty
December 22, 1996 PO Charles Davis, MWS, Shot-Off duty robbery
December 23, 1929 Ptl Michael Speer, 71 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 23, 1930 Ptl James McMahon, Traffic F, Injured on patrol
December 23, 1939 Ptl John Briggs, 23 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 24, 1935 Ptl James Dowling, 25 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 24, 1980 PO Gabriel Vitale, 109 Pct, Shot-investigation
December 25, 1935 Ptl Joseph Reiner, Traffic H, Auto accident on patrol
December 27, 1944 Det Anthony McGinley, 5 DetDist, Shot-Domestic dispute
December 28, 1929 Ptl Joseph Jockel, McyDist, Shot-arrest
December 28, 1974 PO Kenneth Mahon, 41 Pct, Shot-robbery
December 28, 1978 PO David Guttenberg, 68 Pct, Shot-robbery
December 28, 1991 Sgt Keith Levine, CommDiv, Shot-robbery, off duty
December 29, 1878 Ptl Asa Furness, 10 Pct, Shot by EDP


Tuesday, December 17, 2002


Undoubtedly one of the most controversial characters in early NYPD history, Thomas Byrnes led the early Detective force during a very interesting time in this city�s history.

During his tenure, he was probably the most hated man on the department and his policies and actions have been stated as the primary reason for the creation of the PBA.

Byrnes was also incredibly corrupt. History records his wealth amassed at the time of his retirement, noting the unusual amount in comparison to his wages.

Incidentally, his X.O. was none other than the notorious Insp. Alexander Williams, better known as �Clubber� Williams! His deeds, as well as those of Byrnes, have been recounted throughout historical publications, illustrating what can best be described as a "different" time in policing!


Petechial hemorrhages are capillaries that have ruptured because of pressure.

If pressure is put on the neck, the blood backs up and the capillaries, which are the weakest part of the vascular system, rupture.

It takes 60-70 lbs. of pressure to collapse an artery, but only 5 lbs to collapse a vein.

In suffocation, the pressure is primarily on the nose and mouth, not on the neck and usually you do NOT see PETECHIAE. However, when a person struggles this often inadvertently leads to pressure on the neck as well.

Suffocation is a much more rare cause of death than strangulation; there is most often that struggle leading to the pressure on the neck.


The detective system of the city was divided into two branches, the Headquarters Detectives and the Ward Detectives.

The Headquarters Detective force consisted of about 25 men under the command of a Captain, up to January, 1875. The duties of the Headquarters Detectives were the investigation of crimes assigned to them for that purpose by the Superintendent.

The Ward Detectives were about two in number in each precinct although varying; there being sometimes only one, and sometimes three or four. The duties of the Ward Detectives were also the investigation of crime in the precincts, and in this respect they and their Captains at times clashed with the Headquarters Detectives.

The pay of the detectives was precisely the same as that of the Patrolman, $1,200 a year, and no increased compensation was given even to the oldest and most experienced officer among them except when he was allowed by the grace of the Board to receive some portion of the reward paid for the recovery of stolen property. The rank and salary of the oldest detective stood merely on a par with the newest Patrolman who walked his beat.

Pay increased to that of Sergeant when the �Central Office Bureau of Detectives� was established by Chapter 410, Laws of 1882 passed May 17, 1882 and increased the detectives to not more than forty detectives. There were also 10 Patrolmen assigned to the Central Office Bureau of Detectives.


Dec. 7, 1971, Det. Harold Marshall, HAPD- Bklyn. Shot- off duty arrest.

Dec. 7, 1971, Det Harold Marshall, HAPD Bklyn Det. Sqd. While on-duty, in Brooklyn, Det. Marshall suffered a fatal heart attack while attempting to effect the arrest of a fleeing suspect.


Regular readers of this site will recall a recent posting of the �Best Pizza� in the city.

Let�s face it, detectives have been eating pizza since the first original Ray�s opened its doors. It�s just very conducive as �detective food�. Something to eat on the run, or to feed a squad of people working a big case. Not a lot of decision making involved; sausage or meatballs, anchovies or pepperoni, or just a simple �extra-cheese� topping, and the squad can be fed and continue working with very little �down-time�.

Pizza parlors throughout the city can be broken down into two categories: by the slice or dine-in , and then as �brick oven� or �regular�.

One of those chosen as a �Best Of� in our previous entry was a Manhattan spot, THREE OF CUPS.

This is one of the �dine-in� category, brick oven restaurants. A recent visit by The Minister gives this pizza a definite �Three Fingerprints Up� rating. If your detecting takes you over the bridge into lower Manhattan, in the 9 Precinct area, this would be recommended as a dining experience.

Located on the corner of the 9th Precinct � the old building under renovation � at 1st Ave and 5th Street, it features a full menu of Italian dinner specials as well as a delicious wood burning, brick oven pizza menu. �East Village funk meets old world charm�. A rather eclectic setting, lower east side ambiance, with very good food. Highly Recommended by a 9 Squad alumni, you won�t be disappointed. Just keep in mind that it�s open from 6PM � 2am, and for Sunday brunch noon-4pm.

No time to get over the bridge? No problem.

There�s always GALLERIA, on Metropolitan Avenue & Lorimer Street. This place gets �Three and a Half Fingerprints Up�, with a full Italian menu and excellent brick oven pizza.

Crossing over into Brooklyn South, on Union Street off of Seventh Avenue, is LENTO�S Pizza. Another brick-oven hit, earning a �Three Fingerprints Up� rating as well. Close by, and suitably priced.


After stopping for drinks at an illegal bar, a Zimbabwean bus driver found that the 20 mental patients he was supposed to be transporting from Harare to Bulawayo had escaped. Not wanting to admit his incompetence, the driver went to a nearby bus-stop and offered everyone waiting there a free ride. He then delivered the passengers to the mental hospital, telling the staff that the patients were very excitable and prone to bizarre fantasies. The deception wasn't discovered for 3 days.

An American teenager was in the hospital recovering from serious head wounds received from an oncoming train. When asked how he received the injuries, the lad told police that he was simply trying to see how close he could get his head to a moving train before he was hit.


On Dec. 21, 1967, at about 4.00 pm, an Aviation Bureau helicopter took off from Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn to conduct a traffic surveillance. At about 5.50 pm it fell into the East River near the Manhattan Bridge.

The body of the pilot, Ptl. Plato Arvanitis, was recovered from the water by a police launch.

An intensive search was conducted for the other missing patrolman, Ptl. George Bishop. His body was not recovered until May 17, 1968.

Ptl. Arvantis was appointed to the NYPD on Feb. 1, 1955, and had been assigned to the Aviation Bureau since Dec. 1966. He was 38 years of age, married and the father of two children.

Ptl. George Bishop was appointed to the NYPD July 9, 1965. He was 30 years old, married with two small children.


December 16, 1920 Lt Floyd Horton, 40 Pct, Shot: GLA arrest
December 16, 1981 PO Anthony Abruzzo, Jr, 109 Pct, Shot-Robbery, off duty
December 20, 1925 Ptl Stephen McPhillips, 23 Pct, Electrocuted
December 20, 1936 Ptl James Smith, Traffic C, Auto accident
December 20, 1967 Ptl Robert Harris, HAPD, Shot-gun arrest
December 20, 1971 Ptl Carson Terry, HAPD-SI, Shot, off duty arrest
December 20, 1976 PO Carlos King, TPD D2, Shot-off duty robbery
December 21, 1930 Ptl Howard Barrows, 105 Pct, Auto accident
December 21, 1967 Ptl George Bishop, Aviation, Helicopter accident
December 21, 1967 Ptl Plato Arvantis, Aviation, Helicopter accident

Friday, December 13, 2002

You have to try your luck at least once a day, because you could be going around lucky all day and not even know it.


Back in 1901, the following commands were identified within the Police Department of the City of New York.

The Harbor Police were officially known as the Forty-second Precinct.

The Steamboat Squad was the Eighty-first Precinct, and covered the wharves, docks and piers on the lower end of Manhattan.

The Ordinance Squad, which enforced city ordinances, was known as the Third Precinct.

The Boiler Squad, responsible to test steam boilers throughout the city.

The Tenement-House Squad, responsible for the inspection of these premises.

The Broadway Squad, commanded by two roundsmen, during the daytime covered that busy thoroughfare. These men were selected �for their great strength and stature, and their special fitness for the posts they occupy�. This squad was known as the 25 Precinct at one time.

A special force of mounted men covered the Speedway, along the Harlem River, and another special force covered Seventh Avenue, from One Hundred and Tenth street north, which was known as a popular pleasure drive.


Dec. 8, 1946, Ptl. Edward McAuliff, 18 Sqd, LOD injury.

At about 2.30 am (Sun) Dec. 8, 1946, Detective Edward McAuliffe, assigned to the Manhattan West Det Sqd, left his home at 5301 32nd Ave., Astoria, to buy a newspaper.

At 54th St., Astoria he was attacked by two muggers. While being forced to the ground he was able to draw his revolver and fire one shot. The muggers fled. He was taken to St. John's Hospital, Long Island City, where he was found to be suffering from injuries to his face and back. He died at the hospital the same day.

Det. McAuliffe was 68 years of age, and a veteran of 39 years
police service.


The first law enforcement officer killed in the line of duty, Isaac Smith on May 17, 1792. And in the Bronx too!! Well at the time, the Bronx was Westchester County. He was a Westchester County Deputy Sheriff, and we got him on the National Law Enforcement Memorial Wall in Washington, D.C. two years ago.


The FBI is the first law enforcement agency in the country to use DNA test methods to solve crimes.

There are approximately 740,000 sworn law enforcement officers now serving in the United States, which is the highest figure ever. About 12 percent of those officers are female.


New York City has lost more officers in the line of duty than any other department, with 567 deaths. California has lost 1,313 officers, more than any other state. The state with the fewest deaths is Vermont, with 15.

During the last 10 years, more officers were killed feloniously on Wednesdays than any other day of the week. The fewest number of felonious fatalities occurred on Sundays. More officers were killed between 10:00 p.m. and midnight than during any other two-hour period over the past decade.


Our expression of sympathy to the families of two of our own in Brooklyn North are extended today.

To Lt. Tommy Joyce of the 79 Squad, on the passing of his mother.

And to the family of Retired Det. John Barba, 77 Squad, who passed away this past Thursday evening. John retired from the 77 Squad this past year. Our expression of sympathy go out to his family and to all of his friends in the 77 Squad.


Multiple Links: Here�s yet another �multiple-link� web site, provided by a Private Investigative firm in CT, known as Diogenes LLC. Pretty good, certainly worth bookmarking. While you check out the site, take the time to read about who Diogenes was, exactly.


When his 38-caliber revolver failed to fire at its intended victim during a holdup in Long Beach, California, would be robber James Elliot did something that can only inspire wonder: He peered down the barrel and tried the trigger again. This time it worked.

The chef at a hotel in Switzerland lost a finger in a meat cutting machine and, after a little hopping around, submitted a claim to his insurance company. The company, suspecting negligence, sent out one of its men to have a look for himself. He tried the machine out and lost a finger. The chef's claim was approved.

Monday, December 09, 2002


History reveals that the first organized structure of public safety in Brooklyn was the Fire Brigade, and law enforcement began as a measure of controlling the problems of vice.

As written in the Brooklyn Union Newspaper in 1871, the origin of the police force in Brooklyn is outlined as follows.
�In 1802, when her population could be numbered by hundreds, crime and vice seem to have made fresh and increasing inroads upon the primitive simplicity of the residents�. The Town Trustees of Brooklyn began the search to find a suitable location for a �Cage or Watch House�.

The foreman of the fire engine companies were duly authorized to establish and regulate a "guard or night watch" for the prevention of crime within the limits of the town.

In 1815, during the month of May, a number of prominent residents came together at the house of Joshua Sands and organized a society which had for its object the suppression of vice in the town of Brooklyn, and at a subsequent meeting the society passed a resolution ordering that several extracts of the laws of the State relative to working, sporting, traveling and selling on the Sabbath be published in the Brooklyn newspaper, The Star, which was at that time �the only paper with which Brooklyn was blessed.�

In 1819 the town authorities established a temporary night watch and everything in the way of business and improvement continued slowly, until 1824 when progress in Brooklyn fully commenced. Roads, lanes, streets which had been considered a nuisance were laid out. A �Village Watch� was then organized, and a municipal court was established.

Nothing of any interest in the history of this department transpired until the year 1837 when John S. Folk was appointed the �Captain of the Village Watch�.

In 1848 the members of the Common Council appointed five City Marshals, who were to act as constables, with the privilege of preserving order, make arrests on criminal proceedings and attending to the service of all civil business pertaining to the Courts.

In 1849 the city watch was forced to change their quarters from the old James Street Market to the City Hall, which was still under construction. There was an office set aside for the processing of prisoners prior to being locked up, and there were sleeping apartments for the members of the Watch that were kept �on reserve�.

At this time there were no stairways leading to the main portion of the building and the watchmen had to climb a ladder with their prisoners when coming into the building in order to reach the court.

In 1855, the act of consolidation which united Williamsburgh with Brooklyn was consummated. At this time there were seven police districts with a force of 274 men under the chiefship of John S. Folk. The Eighth, Ninth, and Eighteenth Wards were not included, as they had a special police at their own expense. Policemen at this time were appointed by the Common Council with the consent of the Mayor.

In 1857 the Metropolitan Police Act came into operation. The district comprised the counties of New York, Kings, Richmond, and Westchester. Up to this time the members of the police force in the two cities had been controlled by the local authorities but now five commissioners were appointed together with the Mayors of New York and Brooklyn, who were to act as members ex-officio, to control the police affairs of four counties.

The first commissioners were Simeon Draper, James. Nye, James Bowen, and Mayors Wood and Powell.

Check out this People Resource Page,



Pay of 1st Grade Detective 1895: $2,000 per annum
1913: $2,500 per annum

Pay scale eff. Jan. 1, 1963:

Patrolman after 3 years $7,631.00
Detective 3rd (1,470) $7,943 to $8,052
Detective 2nd (742) $8,405 to $8,770
Detective 1st (269) $9,426 to $9,791

Sgt. Supv. of Det. Sq (90) $9,426 to $9,791

Lt. Cmd. of Det. Sq (70) $10,180 to $10,545

At that time each time there was a promotion you had to go through the increments. Later this was changed and you went to top pay.


"Bonnie and Clyde" and their gang murdered 10 law enforcement officers, more than any other criminals.

June 25, 1952
Dotson "Pop" Sutton, 80, becomes the oldest officer to die in the line of duty.

Last year in United States history that fewer than 100 police officers were killed in the line of duty.

November 22, 1963
Dallas Police Officer J.D. Tippit is shot and killed by Lee Harvey Oswald after the assassination of President Kennedy.

The single deadliest year in law enforcement history, with 268 officers killed.
Police start wearing soft body armor for protection against handgun assaults.


December 10, 1929 Ptl Philip Morrissey, 85 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 11, 1922 Ptl Francis Mace, 73 Pct, Line of duty injury
December 12, 1966 Ptl Raul Yglesias, PA, Shot-off duty altercation
December 13, 1932 Ptl Louis Wiendieck, Traffic B, Line of duty pursuit
December 13, 1946 Det James Burke, 48 Sqd, Shot-robbery
December 14, 1932 Ptl George Gerhard, 20 Pct, Shot-Robbery pursuit
December 14, 1961 Ptl Hugh Willoughby, 26 Pct, Shot-robbery, off duty

Friday, December 06, 2002


On July 19, 1895 Commission Roosevelt moved to strengthen the Central Detective Bureau located at 300 Mulberry St.

In a move that the N.Y. Times called �The greatest shake-up in the history of the Central Office Detective Bureau�; many detectives closely linked with the former Superintendent Thomas Byrnes, were demoted to patrolman and nine were forced to retire.

Detectives were now responsible for investigating vice and liquor laws. Specialized squads for the first time (with the exception of Missing Persons) were now organized. Monetary funds were established for undercover detective work. Sensitive investigations were now conducted without the local precinct captain being made aware they were going on.

DEAD MEN DO TELL TALES� More From the Forensic Anthropologist

Postmortem damage occurs after death, after the bone has become brittle from decomposition and drying. Some damage may occur during recovery such as marks acquired during excavation from shovels, trowels or probes, damage from careless handling such as breakage, and marks from scalpels or scissors. Other forms of damage are from natural agents such as dog or other carnivore chewing, rodent gnaw marks, root etching, and flaking and cracking caused by exposure to sunlight.

Attempts to dispose of remains also will cause postmortem damage, such as cutmarks, chemical burns, and burning from fire. Forensic anthropologists are careful to minimize the occurrence of postmortem damage during and after recovery of remains. Postmortem damage is distinguishable from perimortem trauma by the lack of indicators of plastic behavior in the bone, a color difference between the outside bone and the newly exposed bone, and the pattern (e.g., only at joints) or type (e.g., carnivore chewing) of the damage.

It is clear from the above description that "dead men do tell tales."


Don�t forget to utilize the info available in the department�s NITRO database when conducting your investigation.

NITRO: The Narcotic Investigative Tracking of Recidivists, contains a centralized database, networks with other Criminal Justice agencies and inter-department databases and intelligence gathered from undercover and field investigations.

It contains all felony drug arrests since 1997, as well as complaint reports of narcotics and public morals offenses.

NITRO has been helpful in the past in identifying subjects arrested at a set location, as well as identifying associates arrested at the same set. Think of it as a CARS for Narcotics!

Another good investigative use, sometimes not utilized, is a search for identified complainants in Narcotic Kites at a given location. How can this help?

Perhaps you are investigating a shooting or homicide at a certain location. By reviewing KITES for identified complainants you may uncover a witness� A person who is willing to identify themselves on a KITE for a narco complaint is the kind of person that may be willing to reveal information they either personally observed, or have heard about, in that area. Call or contact that KITE complainant, and seek out if they have info to tell you about the shooting or homicide! Nothing ventured, nothing gained!

NITRO info is best utilized by an investigator trained in the use of the database. Each Borough has a Narcotics NITRO Unit. If you cannot access it from the squad, or do not have a detective HIGHLY proficient in obtaining the info, then I recommend you contact the NITRO Unit for assistance.


THE DEAD ZONE LOCATOR was developed to help you identify deceptive sales claims before you buy a mobile phone and more importantly it allows you to warn other consumers about areas where reception is bad or nonexistent.


July 24,1916
Anna Hart becomes the first female officer to be killed in the line of duty.

November 24, 1917
A bomb explodes at Milwaukee Police Headquarters killing nine officers, more than have ever died in any other law enforcement

May 10, 1924
J. Edgar Hoover begins nearly 50 years of service as director of what would later become the FBI.

Federal agent Eliot Ness begins his legendary law enforcement career and is picked to lead a group of agents nicknamed "The Untouchables."


December 6, 1903 Ptl Frank Redican, 1 Pct, Fire rescue
December 6, 1941 Ptl Thomas Casey, 17 Pct, Shot: Robbery pursuit
December 7, 1937 Ptl Edward Lynch, 20 Pct, Shot-Burglary in progress
December 7, 1971 Det Harold Marshall, HAPD-Bklyn, Shot-off duty arrest
December 8, 1924 Ptl Joseph Pelosi, 60 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
December 8, 1932 Ptl Michael Moroso, 23 Pct, Shot by sniper
December 8, 1942 Det Joseph Miccio, 78 Sqd, Shot-investigation
December 8, 1946 Ptl Edward McAuliff, 18 Sqd, LOD injury
December 9, 1932 Ptl John Grattan, Mcy Unit, Motorcycle accident on patrol

Monday, December 02, 2002


Identifying the "first" Chief of Detectives is not as easy as you would think!

The official records of the department, including that of the Metropolitan Police, the predecessor of the NYPD, indicate that, in 1857, Sergeant William A. Lefferts was assigned as the Assistant Chief of Detectives � Acting Chief.

In 1858 through 1860, Capt. George W. Walling held the title as the First Chief of Detectives of the Metropolitan Police.
In 1860, through 1867, it was Capt. John Young who commanded the Detective force.
In 1867, until Oct. 17, 1870, Capt. James J. Kelso became the First �Chief of Detectives� of the Current NYPD Police Department. At that time the name was the New York City Municipal Police, which in 1873 became NYPD.

It was Capt. James Irving who succeeded Kelso, from Oct. 17, 1870 to 1875, and then Capt. James Kealy from 1876 to March 12, 1880.

On March 12,1880, Capt. Thomas Byrnes, who was a Captain since 7-1-1870, took over as the Chief of Detectives. He was later promoted to Inspector on April 23, 1880.

During this early time of the detective force, the Deputy Chief of Detectives was a Sergeant.

The Chief of Detectives held the rank of Captain until Thomas Byrnes was promoted to the rank of Inspector. Every commanding officer of the Detective Bureau or Detective Force, no matter what official rank they held was called the �Chief of Detectives�.

So it can be seen that, actually, Thomas Byrnes was not the first Chief of Detectives. He was, however, the �First� Chief of Detectives of the NYPD Detective Bureau that was established officially as a �Bureau� in 1882.

The title of the police officer performing duty as a �detective� was �Detective Officer�


In a speech noting the promotion from �Chief� of Detectives to Superintendent of Police of Captain James J. Kelso, the following comments are noted not only for his recognition, but as an acknowledgement of the work performed by the Detective.

We, the Detective Force of the Police Department of the City of New York, while heartily joining in the general appreciation of the well-merited appointment of our former official Chief, James J. Kelso, to the more elevated and responsible office of Superintendent of Police, while approving the judiciousness of the selection, cannot refrain from expressing our sense of individual loss in the severance of ties of long association in the most delicate and arduous branch of the public service. The duties of this service are most exacting, requiring the excise of vigilance that knows no rest, patience to overcome obstacles, intuitive perception of character, ready and fearless action in embarrassing situations; these qualities, combined with great natural shrewdness intensified by experience, being possessed by our late Chief in a remarkable degree, that insured success.�

So stated C. B. McDougal commenting on the promotion of Captain James J. Kelso from �Chief of Detectives� to Superintendent of Police on Oct. 17, 1870.


If you are traveling through Kansas City, make sure to take time out to visit Union Station downtown -- it's the site of an historic battle between gangsters and lawmen that changed the face of American justice.

Union Station marked the end of the powerless Bureau of Investigation, the precursor to the FBI, after lawmen -- several of them unarmed -- were gunned down by bandits.

A careful inspection of the elegant train station will reveal scars from the famous "Kansas City Massacre," where Pretty Boy Floyd and his cohorts attempted to free a buddy who was on his way to Leavenworth Penitentiary. Bullet holes from the machine guns used by Floyd's crew still mark the facade of Union Station, silent testament to the people who died there one summer Saturday morning in 1933.

Dubbed "The Kansas City Massacre," the shootout was an attempt by Charles Arthur "Pretty Boy" Floyd, Vernon Miller and Adam Richetti to free their friend, Frank Nash, a Federal prisoner. At the time, Nash was in the custody of several law enforcement officers who were returning him to the U.S. Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kansas, from which he had escaped on October 19, 1930.
Nash had been arrested in Hot Springs, Ark., the Ozark Mountain resort town where Owney Madden had his R&R facility for gangsters on the run.

Kansas City, Mo., was the designated stop for the FBI to transfer prisoners to Leavenworth, a distance of about 35 miles. The lawmen and their fugitive arrived without incident and were met by several local FBI agents and Kansas City police detectives.
As the agents and Nash were getting into their car for the trip, Floyd, Miller and Richetti ran up to the car, shouted "up! up!" and then almost instantly opened fire with machine guns.

Nash was one of four people killed that day by bullets from Floyd and his accomplices. Nash never made it out of the FBI car.
Also murdered were agents R. J. Caffrey and Kansas city police Officers W. J. Grooms and Frank Hermanson and McAlester, Oklahoma, Police Chief Otto Reed (who had helped capture Nash).

The Kansas City Massacre is important in the history of law enforcement because of the outrage it raised among citizens.
"The massacre triggered dramatic changes in the Bureau, a relatively small agency composed of investigators without the authority to carry firearms or make arrests," writes FBI Special Agent Jeff Lanza.

"The evolution was rapid." Shortly afterwards "agents were given power of arrest and authority to carry firearms at all times. The agency, renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) on July 1, 1935, �was given the mandate, power, and tools to fight gangster crime."

DEAD MEN DO TELL TALES� More from the Forensic Anthropologist

Forensic anthropologists are trained to recognize the types of trauma that can be found on bone including blunt force, sharp force, gunshot wounds, and burning. By visual inspection, touch, use of a light microscope, and radiography, the anthropologist can identify these forms on trauma from the characteristic marks they leave on bone. Blunt force trauma is associated with fractured or crushed bone, such as in a greenstick fracture or a depressed cranial fracture.

Blunt force injuries to green bone may leave clear identifying marks of the instrument used to inflict the trauma, such as grooves or direct impressions of the weapon.

Sharp force trauma includes incised cuts, stab wounds, and chopping injuries. This type of trauma leaves an assortment of marks, such as nicks, punctures or serrated grooves, which are observable by touch, plain vision, and under the microscope.


Notorious outlaw, "Billy the Kid," kills six law enforcement officers in New Mexico.

October 26, 1881
Legendary lawman Wyatt Earp, his brothers and "Doc" Holliday, win the Wild West era's most famous gunfight at the O.K. Corral.

Fingerprinting is first used in the United States.

Alice Stebbins Wells, of the Los Angeles Police Department, becomes the first female officer with arrest powers.

Berkeley, California Police Department becomes the first agency in the country to have all patrol officers using automobiles.


November 25, 1933 Ptl Peter Costa, 3 Div, Shot: Robbery in progress
November 25, 1946 Lt Charles Michie, ESU, Explosion-rescue
November 25, 1946 Ptl Peter Kundsen, ESU do
November 25, 1946 Ptl Frances O�Hara, ESU do
November 27, 1963 Det Ronald Rolker, 18 Sq, Shot: Robbery, off duty
November 29, 1941 Ptl James Collins, 62 Pct, LOD Heart attack
November 30, 1900 Ptl William Baumeister, 29 Pct, Shot-assault arrest
November 30, 1957 Ptl Joseph Rauchut, Mcy2, Motorcycle accident on patrol
December 2, 1994 PO Raymond Cannon Jr, 69 Pct, Shot-Robbery
December 3, 1922 Ptl John Kennedy, 123 Pct, LOD Injury
December 3, 1934 Ptl John Monahan, 14 Div, Shot-Arrest
December 3, 1954 Ptl Joseph Norden, 105 Pct, Shot by EDP
December 3, 1973 PO Vincent Connolly, Bomb Sq, Auto, off duty
December 4, 1923 Ptl Alfred Van Clieff, 63 Pct, Motorcycle accident