Monday, September 24, 2001


Trickery & Deceit

The leading case in support of the legality of trickery and deceit in the course of a criminal interrogation is Frazier v. Cupp, decided by the US Supreme Court in 1969.

The court upheld a conviction based in part upon a confession obtained by trickery and deceit, in that a murder suspect had been told falsely that a suspected accomplice had confessed.

The two qualifications to the rule, however, is that the trickery and deceit must NOT be of such a nature as to �shock the conscience� of the court or community, nor can it be one that is apt to induce a false confession.

Examples of these exceptions include posing as a chaplain or a defense attorney in order to gain a confession, as well as making promises that cannot be fulfilled and would induce a false confession. You cannot tell a subject �If you confess, we�ll let you go� or �If you confess, the last 10 people that did so only got probation�. You CAN promise that �I will let the judge and the DA know that you have cooperated and ask them to take that into consideration�.

Be aware that, when testifying in court regarding a statement, a common cross-examination questioning tactic by a defense attorney is to pose the question in a manner that makes you believe a �Yes� answer is an admission of fault. A common question posed by a defense attorney: �Isn�t it true that you tricked and lied to my client in order to get him to confess?� is intended to make it sound as if doing so is a bad thing. IT�S NOT; trickery and deceit IS ALLOWED! The correct answer to that question, �Yes I Did� is proper.


A recent E-mail received from Frank Bolz, the �Hostage Cop�, reveals that he has a new book about to hit the market.

Along with Det Kenny Dudonis, and Dave Schulz they have just had published by CRC Press, the 2nd edition of "The Counter-Terrorism Handbook." Kenny Dudonis, a retired Bomb Squad Detective, has the unique distinction of "Seeing the Yellow Flash up close" On St Patricks Day in 1981, while tryng to render safe an IED, Ken and his partner were both blown up by a "Yippie Bomb", fortunately they both survived. In the book, they share Terrorism, Hostage, Bomb and Kidnap


The Web site maintained by the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section of the U.S. Department
of Justice.,

This site has multiple links relating to law enforcement and cops. Check it out.


It is never acceptable to loosen your tie, except during the process of removing it.

The seat belt shoulder strap goes under your necktie.

A man in a suit without a tie can wear loafers; a man in a suit with a tie cannot.

It is far better to arrive at an event overdressed than underdressed. People will think you�ve got somewhere more important to go afterwards.

Your belt and shoes should match in color.

"LEST WE FORGET"... The NYPD Memorial

Sept 25, 1953 Ptl Harry Widder #6020, Hwy3, Auto accident
Sept 25, 1971 PO Arthur Pelo #3259, HAPD, Shot-Robbery arrest
Sept 25, 1995 PO David Willis, 10 Pct, Auto accident-radio run
Sept 26, 1977 PO Vito Chiaramonte #2233, HAPD-CCU, Shot
Sept 27, 1945 Det Frank McGrath #1975, 2 Sqd, Shot-investigation
Sept 27, 1992 PO William Gunn #1054, 67 Sqd, Shot-investigation
Sept 28, 1921 Ptl Joseph Reuschle #7562, 42 Pct, Shot by prisoner
Sept 28, 1934 Ptl John Fraser #14645, 4 Div, Shot-robbery in progress
Sept 29, 1854 Ptl James Cahill, 11 Ward (9Pct), Shot-burglary *
* This is the 1st recorded Line of Duty Death to an MOS
Sept 29, 1965 Ptl Donald Rainey #2096, Auto Crime, Shot-mistaken ID, off duty
Sept 29, 1983 PO Joseph McCormack #27434, ESU, Shot-barricaded situation

Remember the twenty-three Members of the Service still missing from the WTC Tragedy.

Friday, September 21, 2001

"America is the place where you cannot kill your government by
killing the men who conduct it."

-- Woodrow T. Wilson, 28th President of the United States


I want to acknowledge all of the people from outside of this department, and this city, who have contacted me through this web-site with inquiries concerning contributions to be made to help he families and survivors from this terrible tragedy at the World Trade Center.

A recent telephone message from the Chief of Detectives indicates that a fund has been established for the emergency workers killed in the tragic World Trade Center incident of September 11. All monies contributed to this fund will go directly to the families of the deceased MOS. Contributions should be sent to:

Twin Towers Fund
GPO Box 26999
New York, NY 10087-6999

Remember also the Survivors of the Shield, an organization that provides counseling and other services to the families and survivors of those police officers killed in the line of duty. To make contributions to this organization contact them at:

Survivors of the Shield
PO Box 10017
Staten Island, NY 10310

You can also e-mail them at:


The John E.Reid and Associates web site ( has Part 2 on the Polygraph posted on its web site�s �Investigators Tips�. Take a look at it, if you haven�t already. This is definitely a great site to �bookmark� for regular review. Their monthly Investigator�s Tips section is a very valuable reference for the investigator.

Regarding the Polygraph, the latest posting stresses the importance of the examiner who administers the test. The polygraph is not a �lie detector�; any success that can be expected from the use of this investigative tool is strictly determined by the quality of the examiner. Keep this in mind when referring the use of a polygraph.

�The primary value of the polygraph technique is to eliminate innocent suspects early during an investigation. This greatly assists an investigation in that investigators can focus their efforts on other suspects.� Properly administered, the polygraph technique is a non-accusatory diagnostic procedure that allows an examiner to collect physiological data to infer whether or not a subject is telling the truth to relevant questions.

�Since the polygraph is not a lie-detector, its usefulness during an investigation is entirely dependent on the competency of the examiner. A competent examiner will be accurate in determining truth or deception approximately 90% of the time (based strictly on chart analysis). This figure will increase if the examiner incorporates other means of detecting deception such as behavior symptom analysis. The competent examiner will be unable to render a definite opinion of truth or deception in about 10% of subjects examined. An examiner who boasts of an accuracy rate above 95% and an inconclusive rate less than 5% should be avoided.�

An important part of an examiner's training is to identify those subjects who are at risk for producing erroneous results. The ideal subject is one of average, or above average intelligence, who is not mentally impaired and is in reasonably good medical health. It is also important that the subject's emotional state is relatively stable during the examination. Subjects with a lower intelligence may also increase the risk of a false negative result. In some cases, a guilty subject may engage in countermeasures that the examiner fails to recognize during chart analysis. Identifying countermeasures is a critical part of a competent examiner's training. It is the guilty subject who will consciously try to manipulate the polygraph recordings. In this regard, agencies should be very cautious when using an examiner who relies exclusively on computer analyzed charts. None of the software developed for this purpose is capable of identifying specific subject countermeasures.

The John E. Reid web site also has a very good �links� page. Be sure to check this out as well.


I just wanted to acknowledge that Det. John Muller of the 77 Squad recently attended a John E. Reid & Associates seminar on Interviewing and Interrogating (on his own time and expense). Det. Muller found this to be very helpful, and has shared some of the classroom materials with the Minister. I�ll be referring to some of the better material in later postings. (He also returned with a nie looking portfolio, and plenty of info on "body language").

Remember my earlier reference to the difference between an Interview and an Interrogation?


CRIMES-OF-PERSUASION - This crime report on organized crime
topics includes credit card fraud, check kiting, tax fraud,
money laundering, mail fraud, counterfeit money orders, check
fraud and other who's who true crimes of persuasion.

If you haven�t already found this, check out the �Police One� web site, with information and reference links for law enforcement.

US FLAG-etiquette-other flags and info.
Check out the proper way to display a flag. Noted: If the flag is hanging, but not on a pole (inside a window, etc), the union is placed to the top left corner of the viewer.


If you hang your jacket on the back of a chair and then sit on the chair and lean back, your jacket will look as if you had hung it on a chair and then sat on the chair and leaned back on it.

The shirt placket, the belt buckle, and the trouser fly should all line up.
Speaking of belt buckles, the point of your tie should never fall below it.

Neckties decorated with cartoon characters, golf tees, or the paintings of dead rock musicians coordinate with nothing.


Send your E-mail to: LTJAC77

Over one week after the tragic terrorist attack on the orld Trade Center, this department still has twenty-three members who are missing and unaccounted for. Please take a moment to say a prayer for the families of these officers.

Tuesday, September 18, 2001


Please, during this terrible tragedy, take a moment to remember our fallen brothers and sisters. Say a prayer for them and their families, the loved ones they left behind, the survivors.


In the book THE DETECTIVES, which discusses the toughest cases of a handful of NYPD Detectives, Lt. Phil Panzarella notes the following. (Phil is currently with the Queens Cold Case Squad; he was the C.O. of the Queens Homicide Squad prior to that, and worked as a Squad Commander, Sergeant, and Detective in the Bureau as well.)
Phil states that Lt. DAN KELLY, Retired CO of the Queens Homicide Squad, (and one of the finest Squad Commanders around!) preached that Four Items Solve Homicides:
* Crime Scene
* Interviews
* Records
* Surveillance
Crime Scene: The recovery of evidence and review of the scene is crucial
Interviews: Talking to people; canvassing the area; gathering background info on the
Victim; and the Interview of the Suspect
Records: Background checks on all people, suspects, etc.
Surveillance: Getting out into the field to observe, look for and apprehend the suspect


If I may quote Philly again :


WD-40 literally stands for Water Displacement, 40th attempt. That's the name straight out of the lab book used by the chemist who developed WD-40 back in 1953. The chemist, Norm Larsen, was attempting to concoct a formula to prevent corrosion-a task which is done by displacing water. Norm's persistence paid off when he perfected the formula on his 40th try.


The Web site maintained by the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section of the U.S. Department
of Justice.,

In February 1999, Esquire published an article on Osama bin Laden by ABC news correspondent John Miller, the former NYPD Deputy Commissioner of Public Information, who had traveled to Afghanistan for a surreal and chilling conversation with the man who is now a primary suspect in Tuesday's attack on America. The full text is available here:

"LEST WE FORGET"... The NYPD Memorial

Sept 18, 1927 Ptl Jerome DeLorenzo #6850, 4 Pct, Shot: Accidental discharge
Sept 19, 1943 Sgt Matthew McCormick #989, 120 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
Sept 21, 1952 Det Philip LaMonica #2068, 42 Sqd, Shot-arrest
Sept 21, 1984 PO Irma Lozada #4721, TD-33, Shot-Robbery arrest
Sept 22, 1946 Ptl William Brophy #17729, 109 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
Sept 22, 1983 PO Joseph Hamperian, TPD-SCU, Struck by auto
Sept 22, 1987 PO Robert Venable, TD-33, Shot-arrest
Sept 23, 1896 Ptl Thomas McIntyre, Mounted, Dragged by horse
Sept 23, 1937 Det John H.A. Wilson #15182, 1 Pct, Shot-Robbery
Sept 23, 1941 Ptl James Schowers #16845, 28 Pct, LOD Heart attack
Sept 23, 1970 Ptl Michael Paolilo #4063, Ident.Unit, Stabbed-off duty investing.

Friday, September 14, 2001


Please take a moment to remember all those who are missing, who have given their lives, at the World Trade Center disaster.

We hope and pray that these brave individuals - police officers, firefighters, and others who have perished will be remembered in our prayers. Their families deserve it.

Fly your Flag! God Bless America!

Monday, September 10, 2001


In the post-Civil War era of New York, the Whyos from Mulberry bend just north of the Five Points, were the most vicious group found in the city. Many of the worst thugs and murderers of the city belonged to this gang. Individual members were available for hire, and one even handed out a price list:
Punching - $2.00
Both eyes blacked - $4.00
Nose and jaw broke - $10.00
Ear chewed off - $15.00
Leg or arm broke - $19.00
Shot in leg - $25.00
Stabbed - $25.00
Doing the big job - $100.00 and up


In the early 1800�s, the most feared district of New York was the �Five Points�.

The Five Points district included the area bounded by Broadway, Canal, the Bowery, and Park Row. The actual Five Points was the intersection of Cross, Anthony, Little Water, Orange, and Mulberry Streets.

Until it was destroyed in 1852, its leading landmark, the Old Brewery, converted to a tenement, enjoyed a reputation as the most violent building in the city. It housed about 1,000 persons, and according to popular legend experienced a murder a night, though this appears highly doubtful.


UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS - The UNT White Collar Crimes page features many useful links covering embezzlement, bribery, tax evasion, fraud, postal crimes, bribery, and computer crime.

BOSTON COLLEGE - BC's Internal Audit Department's home page is designed to provide members of the academic and administrative communities educational information and guidance concerning internal control and business ethics. Fraud Prevention page with information about fraud and white-collar crime "red flags."


Got a Light?

A San Diego County man, having purchased a case of rare, very expensive cigars, insured them against... get this... fire. Within a month, having smoked his entire stockpile of fabulous cigars and having yet to make a single premium payment on the policy, the man filed a claim against the insurance company. In his claim, the man stated that he had lost the cigars in "a series of small fires." The insurance company refused to pay, citing the obvious reason that the man had consumed the cigars in a normal fashion. The man sued... and won.

In delivering his ruling, the judge stated that since the man held a policy from the company in which it had warranted that the cigars were insurable and also guaranteed that it would insure the cigars against fire, without defining what it considered to be "unacceptable fire," it was obligated to compensate the insured for his loss. Rather than endure a lengthy and costly appeal process, the insurance company accepted the judge's ruling and paid the man $15,000 for the rare cigars he lost in "the fires."

After the man cashed his check, however, the insurance company had him arrested on 24 counts of arson. With his own insurance claim and testimony from the previous case being used as evidence against him, the man was convicted of intentionally burning the rare cigars and sentenced to 24 consecutive one-year terms.

>�LEST WE FORGET�� The NYPD Memorial

Sept 10, 1951 Det James Daggett #727, S,L&T Sqd, Explosion-investigation
Sept 10, 1964 Ptl Anthony Esposito #6485, 66 Pct, Heart Attack
Sept 11, 1976 PO Brian Murray #13639, Bomb Sqd, Explosion-Investigation
Sept 12, 1968 Ptl John Madden #19689, 104 Pct, LOD Heart attack
Sept 12, 1991 PO hector Fontanez #30725, 47 Pct, Shot by perp-investigation
Sept 13, 1928 Ptl Jeremiah Brosnan #779, 24 Pct, Shot by perp
Sept 14, 1931 Sgt Timothy Murphy #511, 8 Pct, Shot-robbery in progress
Sept 14, 1974 PO Bruce Anderson #25472, 32 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
Sept 15, 1931 Ptl William Eberhardt #9527, 15 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
Sept 15, 1979 PO Melvin Hopkins #25923, 77 Pct, Shot-robbery off duty
Sept 16, 1927 Ptl Henry Meyer #6427, 54 Pct, Shot-robbery arrest
Sept 16, 1975 PO Andrew Glover #14007, 9 Pct, Shot-Assassination
Sept 16, 1975 Sgt Frederick Reddy #1258, 9 Pct, Shot-Assassination
Sept 16, 1977 PO Daniel Nowonlynski #31538, 23 Pct, Shot-off duty

Friday, September 07, 2001


The �NIGERIAN 419� Scam � named after the code in the Nigerian Criminal Code that relates to larceny by fraud, is a widespread scam that � like many con games � is hard to believe that someone would fall for. But fall for it they do, to an enormous amount of money as well.

The Nigerian Scam is, according to published reports, the Third to Fifth largest industry in Nigeria.

This appears to be one of the largest, and longest running, scams in the world. It is also a very dangerous one. According to the State Department, by 1996 over 15 people had been murdered after they travelled to Nigeria to participate in this "opportunity." Even more have been beaten or subject to threats and extortion.

There are a number of variations on this scam, but all involve the same themes: You receive a letter from a government official or businessman from Nigeria, telling you confidentially of a large sum of money that is available. You are asked to assist in the transfer of that money, for a share of the profits.

The proposal, typewritten on official-looking stationary, offers a 25 percent commission for assistance in transferring surplus funds of up to $38 million (obtained from "over-invoiced government contracts") from Nigeria to the United States. The solicitations request the reader provide a bank account number in order to complete the transaction. "Investors" who respond to the offer will be required to pay a never-ending assortment of legal fees, personal expenses and government bribes until the victim is drained of all assets.
If you go along with the ruse, you will be asked to send money for transaction and transfer costs. Sequential "emergencies" come up requiring further payment and causing delay in the transfer of funds to you.

This confidence scheme is very elaborate and sophisticated. Some of the con artists are Nigerian civil servants, and they will forward to you official and official-looking documents to demonstrate their legitimacy.

These rip-offs, which contain variations in theme, are widespread. The U.S. Secret Service gets reports of about 100 victims per day, and receives 300-500 pieces of scam literature forwarded to them each day. In Nigeria, the scam is widely known as the "419" scam, named so after the provision of the Nigerian penal code that relates to fraud.

A victim who gets lured into the scam will be asked to travel to Nigeria or a neutral country to make certain necessary arrangements for the transfer of funds. He will be asked to bring expensive items, such as high priced pens or jewelry, to facilitate the transaction.
Upon arrival in Nigeria, victims are taken to hotels close to the airport. In Nigeria, strings of hotels near to the airport in Lagos are known locally as "419 hotels" because they are known to be used in this enormous rip off.

Alone in a foreign country, disoriented, and without familiar resources, the victim has no way to fend off the 419 gang that will target him in the hotel. In an elaborate con, they will arrange meetings with civil servants in government buildings or in official-looking buildings. The victim will be told to transfer even more money and to sign contracts that commit to greater losses of money.
If the victim goes along with the con, he will be allowed to leave the country without harm (and without money). But resistance can lead to extortion, beatings and murder.

In one case a victim who had already spent thousands of dollars on various fees, was told that additional money was needed to "decoat" a suitcase full of "coated" one hundred dollar bills. The victim was told that the bills were temporarily defaced with a black film to mask the origin of the money, and a special, very expensive solution, must be purchased to "decoat" the bills.
To circumvent the expense of mailing the letters, these criminal enterprises use counterfeit postage, costing the Nigerian Postal Service (NIPOST) hundreds of thousands of dollars each year in lost revenue. Under Universal Postal Union regulations, Nigeria is charged a terminal dues fee by the delivering country for this foreign-originating mail.

Most 419 letters and emails originate from or are traceable back to Nigeria. However, some originate from other nations, mostly also West African nations such as Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast (Cote D�Ivoire) etc.


As I logged on-line to post this issue of The Squad Room, I first checked my e-mail.

First, I received a nice leter from Frank Bolz, with some information that will be the subject of a future posting.

Then, I open an e-mail labeled "Urgent and Confidential". What was it? None other than an e-mail OF A NIGERIAN 419 SCAM!!! I had to check my Squd Room posting; I knew I wrote of hisscam last week, but wasn't sure if it had ben posted already. At first I thought: Sure, I write about a scam and someone - probably as a joke - makes up a phony letter and sends me one. (TheMinister knows several jokesters who would be capable of such a stunt!).

But, NO.. the posting on the Nigerian scam HAD NOT YET BEEN MADE, so what I received must be an ACTUAL Nigerian 419 letter.

Appropriate steps will be taken, YOU CAN BE SURE! (Don't try to scam the Minister!)


The N.Y.P.D. eight-point hat, which has been in use since 1928, is symbolic of the eight original members of the first Watch, in Dutch New York.


To attempt to set the record straight, it should be noted that PO ROBERT BILODEAU, who was killed in the line of duty in 1980, was posthumously awarded two (2) Medals of Honor at the 1981 Department Medal Day Ceremonies. These awards were for two separate incidents.

PO Bilodeau was assigned to the Street Crime Unit when he was shot on February 12, 1980 during an investigation.

His first incident that resulted in his being awarded the Medal of Honor stemmed from his role as a decoy during a decoy operation, in which he was slashed by a would-be mugger in the throat.

It was noted by the department at that time that �this is the first time that the New York Police department accorded this honor to a police officer�, the awarding of two Medals of Honor for two incidents at the same ceremony. It was noted in an earlier posting that Det. Johnny Cordes was awarded two Medals of Honor on two separate occasions, and according to �NYPD� by James Lardner and Thomas Reppetto, he was the only recipient of two Medals of Honor. That apparently was an incorrect statement, as Bilodeau was so honored in 1981.


Launched last week by ABA President Robert Hirshon, ABA offers "access to resources designed with consumers in mind." The site is divided into eight sections: Family, Home, Job, Finances, Buying and Selling, Criminal Justice, and Finding a Lawyer. Each section contains links to resources provided by ABA, handbooks, glossaries, documents, and so forth. A
good place to start for easy-to-understand, basic legal information.

Russian Organized Crime Impacts People Globally.

"The Threat of Russian Organized Crime" (40 pp.) (NCJ187085) discusses the presence of a new global crime threat
from organizations and criminal activities that have poured forth over the borders of Russia and other former Soviet
republics and the real and potential impacts of Russian organized crime on the United States. (NIJ)
Access full text at: or
Place orders at:

"LEST WE FORGET"... The NYPD Memorial

Sept 3, 1932 Ptl Peter DeCarlo #6157, 32 Pct, Shot-Robbery in progress
Sept 3, 1967 Ptl John Darcy #10494, 28 Pct, Auto accident on patrol
Sept 4, 1961 Ptl Francis X. Walsh #23349, 32 Pct, Shot-Robbery
Sept 4, 1962 Ptl Robert Byrnes #1106, 94 Pct, Shot by EDP
Sept 7, 1970 Ptl Patrick Canavan #13330, PA, Stabbed off duty
Sept 9, 1979 PO Edwin Fogel #5540, Hwy 1, Shot-Auto check

Tuesday, September 04, 2001


One of the books the Minister recently picked up on a true-crime shopping spree was �Secrets of the Surete: Memoirs of Commissioner Belin�, who served as the Commissioner of the French Surete Nationale during the time of World War II.
Documenting his 30 years as a policeman, beginning in 1912, Belin describes many interesting cases he was involved in, giving good background into the French system of policing.

It was also interesting to read of the time during the German occupation of France, and the role of the police during that turbulent period.

The French Surete is the national police agency of France, similar in scope to our FBI or Scotland Yard for Great Britain. They are the detective force for France. Mr. Belin relates some interesting theories on detective work, which are well worth documenting here.
�The science of detection depends mainly on accurate and trained observation. After that the detective must be objective and unprejudiced in his observations, be undeterred by disappointment, and possessed of unlimited patience and perseverance. He must also have an infinite capacity for hard work, often dreary and monotonous, and frequently unrewarding�. Words that are true to this day.

An interesting fact disclosed a requirement to enter the Surete by the former Commissioner was that a recruit could not be any taller than 5 feet 7 inches. It was felt that a detective should be unobtrusive in appearance, and have no marked distinguishing features � no facial scars, no red hair, etc. This was so that he would not stand out while conducting his duties � to blend in to the crowd as a common person. Certainly an unusual requirement, which has since been eliminated.

Even French policemen get to write memoirs.


A practice in place in the Detective Bureau during the 60�s was the deployment of detectives in �Cruiser Cars�.
Newly assigned �white shield� detectives were assigned � within the Division and the Squad � to patrol in unmarked �Cruiser Cars�.

They performed duty similar to what takes place now by Anti-Crime and Street Crime Units. Patrolling in plainclothes in unmarked cars, they addressed pick-up jobs and were in place to make arrests for street crimes.



Now when you synchronize your watch, you can REALLY synchronize it:
Exact Time - US Naval Observatory

Worldwide Telephone Directory: Links to telephone directories throughout the world; white pages, yellow pages, etc.

"LEST WE FORGET"... The NYPD Memorial

Sept 1, 1891 Ptl John Sherman, 26 Pct, Stabbed-Arrest
Sept 1, 1923 Ptl John Egan #10550, 51 Pct, Shot by perp.
Sept 1, 1954 Ptl Anthony Balga #12247, PBBklyn, Auto accident on patrol
Sept 2, 1953 Sgt Saul Starett #565, 50 Pct, Electrocuted
Sept 2, 1956 Ptl William Long #15186, 103 Pct, Shot-Arrest
Sept 2, 1982 PO Robert Seton-Harris #12620, 122 Pct, LOD Heart Attack